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Consumer Bankruptcy Law and Practice

2012 10th ed. and 2013 Supplement

The definitive consumer bankruptcy treatise, updated with the latest case law and changes to the Bankruptcy Code, forms, fee schedules, and rules, by Henry Sommer, the nation's leading author on consumer bankruptcy.

1432 pages in two volumes, with 288-pp. 2013 Supplement and companion website
ISBN 978-1-60248-114-5

"A must for every counselor and practicing bankruptcy lawyer in the consumer field. I hope practitioners in my court acquaint themselves with this valuable work."

--Judge Marilyn Morgan, U.S. Bankruptcy Court, Northern District of California

Volume Two and the Website

All the practice tools you need:

  • Client questionnaire (English and Spanish)
  • Annotated sample completed initial forms for use in 2014
  • 170 sample pleadings in Word format
  • A date calculator to compute 24 key look-back dates
  • Forms and tips to obtain client tax records for use in 2014
  • State-by-state analysis of exemption law
  • The Code and other bankruptcy statutes
  • Bankruptcy rules, in effect for 2014
  • 2014 means test data
  • Client handouts.
A Complete Practice Package: The Best Value Anywhere

Volume One offers expert guidance and incisive analysis on all consumer bankruptcy topics:

  • Automatic stay, the bankruptcy discharge, and remedies for stay and discharge violations
  • Using bankruptcy to deal with a foreclosure
  • Exemptions, lien avoidance and secured claims
  • Hidden fees and overcharges in creditor claims
  • Attorney fees
  • Litigating consumer cases in bankruptcy
  • Non-dischargeability actions
  • Creditor reaffirmation abuses
  • Consumers as creditors of bankrupt merchants, landlords, or lenders.
Summary Contents
Volume 1
  • Contents
  • Chapter 1 About This Treatise
  • Chapter 2 What Is Bankruptcy? Some General Concepts
  • Chapter 3 Chapter 7 Bankruptcy (Straight Bankruptcy): The Basic Steps
  • Chapter 4 Chapter 13 Bankruptcy: The Basic Steps
  • Chapter 5 Getting All the Necessary Facts
  • Chapter 6 Counseling the Consumer Debtor: Does Bankruptcy Provide the Best Solution and, If So, How and When?
  • Chapter 7 Preparing and Filing the Papers
  • Chapter 8 After the Papers Are Filed
  • Chapter 9 Automatic Stays and Turnover of Property
  • Chapter 10 Exemptions
  • Chapter 11 Dealing with Secured Creditors
  • Chapter 12 Issues Arising in Chapter 13 Cases
  • Chapter 13 Dismissal or Conversion of a Bankruptcy Case
  • Chapter 14 Litigating in the Bankruptcy Court
  • Chapter 15 The Discharge: Protecting It and Using It
  • Chapter 16 Attorney Fees for Debtor's Counsel and Attorney Duties in Consumer Bankruptcy Cases
  • Chapter 17 Chapter 12 Bankruptcy: Family Farmer and Family Fisherman Reorganization
  • Chapter 18 Consumers As Creditors in Bankruptcy: Selected Topics
  • Bibliography
  • Index
Volume 2
  • Appendix A Bankruptcy Statutes
  • Appendix B Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure
  • Appendix C Bankruptcy Regulations, Fees, and Agency Notices
  • Appendix D Official Bankruptcy Forms with Annotated Samples
  • Appendix E Director's Procedural Forms
  • Appendix F Bankruptcy Questionnaire
  • Appendix G Sample Bankruptcy Pleadings and Other Forms
  • Appendix H Practice Aids
  • Appendix I Means Test Data
  • Appendix J Summaries of State Exemption Laws
  • Appendix K Bankruptcy Client Handouts
  • Appendix L Helpful Websites
  • Appendix M Finding Pleadings and Primary Sources on the Companion Website
Table of Contents

Download Table of Contents in PDF format

Volume 1
  • About the Companion Website, Other Search Options
  • Chapter 1 About This Treatise
    • 1.1 Bankruptcy As a Remedy for Consumer Debtors
      • 1.1.1 Overview
      • 1.1.2 The Bankruptcy Reform Act and Subsequent Amendments
        • 1.1.2.1 Passage of the Bankruptcy Reform Act
        • 1.1.2.2 Consumer Bankruptcy Amendments of 1984
        • 1.1.2.3 Bankruptcy Judges, United States Trustees, and Family Farmer Bankruptcy Act of 1986
        • 1.1.2.4 The Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1994
        • 1.1.2.5 The 2005 Bankruptcy Amendments
        • 1.1.2.6 Other Amendments to the Code
      • 1.1.3 Bankruptcy's Past As Neglected Remedy
      • 1.1.4 Making Bankruptcy Available to Consumer Clients
    • 1.2 The Focus of This Treatise—Bankruptcy Practice for Consumer Debtors and Family Farmers
    • 1.3 How to Use This Treatise
      • 1.3.1 Purpose of the Treatise
      • 1.3.2 Organization of the Treatise
      • 1.3.3 Web-Based Text Search Feature
      • 1.3.4 Using This Treatise As a Research Tool
        • 1.3.4.1 This Treatise Does Not Contain Citations to Every Relevant Case
        • 1.3.4.2 NCLC Case Consulting and Other NCLC Treatises
    • 1.4 The Governing Law
      • 1.4.1 Statutory Materials
        • 1.4.1.1 The Bankruptcy Code
        • 1.4.1.2 Other Relevant Statutes
      • 1.4.2 The Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure
      • 1.4.3 The Official Bankruptcy Forms
      • 1.4.4 Other Issues Concerning Sources of Law
        • 1.4.4.1 Pending Legislation and Amendments to the Rules
        • 1.4.4.2 Local Bankruptcy Rules
        • 1.4.4.3 Case Law Under the Code
    • 1.5 Other Resources for Practicing Under the Bankruptcy Code
      • 1.5.1 Legislative History
        • 1.5.1.1 The Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978
        • 1.5.1.2 The 1984 Amendments
        • 1.5.1.3 The 1986 Amendments
        • 1.5.1.4 The Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1994
        • 1.5.1.5 The 2005 Amendments
      • 1.5.2 Rules Advisory Committee Notes
      • 1.5.3 Treatises and Texts
      • 1.5.4 Reporting Services
      • 1.5.5 Periodicals
      • 1.5.6 Citator
      • 1.5.7 Computer Assisted Legal Research
  • Chapter 2 What Is Bankruptcy? Some General Concepts
    • 2.1 A Definition
    • 2.2 Relief Available in Bankruptcy
    • 2.3 Purposes of Bankruptcy
    • 2.4 The Bankruptcy Court
      • 2.4.1 Status Under the Bankruptcy Reform Act As Amended in 1984
      • 2.4.2 Jurisdiction
      • 2.4.3 Appeals
    • 2.5 The Bankruptcy Estate
      • 2.5.1 Contents of the Estate
      • 2.5.2 Pensions and Spendthrift Trusts
      • 2.5.3 Education Savings Accounts
      • 2.5.4 Pawned Personal Property
      • 2.5.5 Tax Refunds and the Earned Income Tax Credit
    • 2.6 The Bankruptcy Trustee
    • 2.7 The United States Trustee
  • Chapter 3 Chapter 7 Bankruptcy (Straight Bankruptcy): The Basic Steps
    • 3.1 General Explanation of Chapter 7 Bankruptcy
    • 3.2 Commencement of the Case
      • 3.2.1 Who May File?
        • 3.2.1.1 General Rules, Including Credit Counseling Requirement
        • 3.2.1.2 Effect of Prior Bankruptcy Cases on Eligibility to File
        • 3.2.1.3 Eligibility to File a Case Does Not Assure Discharge of Debts
        • 3.2.1.4 Credit Counseling Briefing Requirement
        • 3.2.1.5 Dismissal for Abuse and the Means Test
      • 3.2.2 The Initial Forms
      • 3.2.3 Proper Venue for Bankruptcy Case
    • 3.3 First Steps After Filing
    • 3.4 The Section 341(a) Meeting (Meeting of Creditors)
    • 3.5 After the Meeting of Creditors
      • 3.5.1 Exempt and Encumbered Property; Abandonment of Property
      • 3.5.2 Liquidation of Nonexempt Property
      • 3.5.3 Filing and Allowance of Claims
      • 3.5.4 Distribution of Property to Creditors
    • 3.6 The Discharge and Discharge Hearing
  • Chapter 4 Chapter 13 Bankruptcy: The Basic Steps
    • 4.1 General Explanation of Chapter 13 Bankruptcy
    • 4.2 Commencement of the Case
      • 4.2.1 Who May File?
        • 4.2.1.1 General Rules
        • 4.2.1.2 Individuals with Regular Income
        • 4.2.1.3 Debt Limitations
        • 4.2.1.4 Effect of Prior Bankruptcy Cases
        • 4.2.1.5 Availability of a Discharge
      • 4.2.2 The Initial Forms
      • 4.2.3 Conversion from a Chapter 7 Case
    • 4.3 First Steps After Filing
    • 4.4 The Meeting of Creditors and Other Preconfirmation Activities
    • 4.5 The Confirmation Hearing
    • 4.6 Modification of the Plan and Postpetition Transactions
    • 4.7 Options in the Event of Failure to Complete the Plan
      • 4.7.1 Overview
      • 4.7.2 Hardship Discharge
      • 4.7.3 Modification
      • 4.7.4 Conversion to Chapter 7
      • 4.7.5 Dismissal
    • 4.8 Discharge
  • Chapter 5 Getting All the Necessary Facts
    • 5.1 Introduction to the Treatise's Second Part
      • 5.1.1 Purpose of These Four Chapters
      • 5.1.2 Roles for Non-Attorneys
      • 5.1.3 Use of the Materials in the Treatise
    • 5.2 The Importance of Getting All the Facts
    • 5.3 Methods of Gathering Information
      • 5.3.1 The Initial Interview
      • 5.3.2 Filling in the Complete Picture
      • 5.3.3 Frequently Missed Information
        • 5.3.3.1 Introduction
        • 5.3.3.2 Property
        • 5.3.3.3 Liabilities
        • 5.3.3.4 Expenses
        • 5.3.3.5 Other Aspects of Financial Affairs
      • 5.3.4 Other Sources of Information
    • 5.4 Impressing upon Clients the Need for Full and Accurate Information
  • Chapter 6 Counseling the Consumer Debtor: Does Bankruptcy Provide the Best Solution and, If So, How and When?
    • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.1.1 Explaining the Options to Clients
      • 6.1.2 Methods of Explaining Bankruptcy
    • 6.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Bankruptcy
      • 6.2.1 Advantages: The Uses of Bankruptcy
        • 6.2.1.1 Discharge of Most Debts
        • 6.2.1.2 Protection of Property and Income from Unsecured Creditors
        • 6.2.1.3 Tools for Eliminating or Modifying Secured Debts
        • 6.2.1.4 Automatic Stay
        • 6.2.1.5 Other Protections Available Through Bankruptcy
        • 6.2.1.6 Litigation Advantages of the Bankruptcy Forum
      • 6.2.2 Disadvantages: Reasons for Not Filing a Bankruptcy Case
        • 6.2.2.1 Overview
        • 6.2.2.2 Loss of Property in Bankruptcy
        • 6.2.2.3 Effect on Credit and Reputation
        • 6.2.2.4 Possible Discrimination After Bankruptcy
          • 6.2.2.4.1 The available protections
          • 6.2.2.4.2 Medical debts
        • 6.2.2.5 Clients' Feelings of Moral Obligation
        • 6.2.2.6 Cost of Filing a Bankruptcy Petition
        • 6.2.2.7 Is Bankruptcy Necessary?
        • 6.2.2.8 When Bankruptcy Offers No Help or Is Unavailable
          • 6.2.2.8.1 When bankruptcy will not help
          • 6.2.2.8.2 Clients who have filed prior bankruptcy cases
    • 6.3 Choosing the Type of Bankruptcy Case to File
      • 6.3.1 Introduction
      • 6.3.2 Considerations Favoring Chapter 7
      • 6.3.3 Considerations Favoring Chapter 13
      • 6.3.4 Use of Chapter 11 by Consumer Debtors
    • 6.4 Should Both Spouses File?
    • 6.5 Considerations of Timing and Events Prior to Filing
      • 6.5.1 Reasons to File Quickly
      • 6.5.2 The Effects of Prebankruptcy Transfers or Other Actions
        • 6.5.2.1 Fraudulent Acts, Conveyances, and Preferences
        • 6.5.2.2 Exemption Time Periods and Exemption Planning
      • 6.5.3 Other Reasons for Delaying a Petition
        • 6.5.3.1 Anticipation of Further Debt
        • 6.5.3.2 Paying Favored Creditors
        • 6.5.3.3 Delay of a Petition As a Strategy to Forestall Harm to Clients
        • 6.5.3.4 Tax Reach Back Periods
        • 6.5.3.5 Delay to Obtain More Favorable Treatment of Certain Secured Debts in Chapter 13
        • 6.5.3.6 Timing the Petition to Avoid a Presumption of Abuse in Chapter 7 or to Lower Disposable Income in Chapter 13
        • 6.5.3.7 Timing the Petition to Avoid Automatic Stay Limitations
        • 6.5.3.8 Less Common Reasons for Delaying a Petition
  • Chapter 7 Preparing and Filing the Papers
    • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.1.1 Some General Principles
      • 7.1.2 Obtaining the Forms
      • 7.1.3 Computer Programs
      • 7.1.4 Electronic Filing of Documents
    • 7.2 The Papers Necessary to Start a Case
      • 7.2.1 Forms Usually Filed
      • 7.2.2 The Emergency Bankruptcy, or How to Prepare a Bankruptcy Case in Under One Hour
      • 7.2.3 Timing the Filing of Multiple Cases
    • 7.3 Forms at the Outset of the Case
      • 7.3.1 Official and Unofficial Forms
      • 7.3.2 The Bankruptcy Petition (Official Form 1)
      • 7.3.3 Statement of Social Security Number (Official Form 21)
      • 7.3.4 List of Creditors, Codebtors, and Parties to Executory Contracts
      • 7.3.5 Credit Counseling Statement, Certificate from Counseling Agency, and Debt Management Plan (If Any)
      • 7.3.6 Notice of Chapters Under Which Relief Is Available and Other Information
      • 7.3.7 The Bankruptcy Schedules (Official Form 6)
        • 7.3.7.1 Overview
        • 7.3.7.2 Schedules A, B, and C: The Debtor's Property
          • 7.3.7.2.1 Schedule A—real property
          • 7.3.7.2.2 Schedule B—personal property
          • 7.3.7.2.3 Schedule C—property claimed as exempt
        • 7.3.7.3 Schedules D, E, and F: Information About Creditors
          • 7.3.7.3.1 In general
          • 7.3.7.3.2 Schedule D—secured debts
          • 7.3.7.3.3 Schedule E—priority debts
          • 7.3.7.3.4 Schedule F—general unsecured debts
        • 7.3.7.4 Schedule G: Unexpired Leases and Executory Contracts
        • 7.3.7.5 Schedule H: Codebtors
        • 7.3.7.6 Schedules I and J: Income and Expenses
        • 7.3.7.7 Declaration Concerning Debtor's Schedules
        • 7.3.7.8 The Summary of Schedules and Statistical Summary of Certain Liabilities
      • 7.3.8 The Statement of Financial Affairs (Official Form 7)
      • 7.3.9 Statement of Current Monthly Income, Means Test, and Chapter 13 Calculations (Official Forms 22A and 22C)
      • 7.3.10 Filing Debtor Payment Advices
      • 7.3.11 The Statement of Intention with Regard to Property Securing Consumer Debts (Official Form 8)
      • 7.3.12 The Chapter 13 Plan
        • 7.3.12.1 Introduction
        • 7.3.12.2 Form of Plan
        • 7.3.12.3 Required Provisions and Confirmation Standards
        • 7.3.12.4 Other Plan Provisions Permitted
        • 7.3.12.5 Formulating the Plan
      • 7.3.13 Other Forms
        • 7.3.13.1 Overview
        • 7.3.13.2 Disclosure of Fees
        • 7.3.13.3 Application to Pay Filing Fee in Installments
        • 7.3.13.4 Application for Waiver of Filing Fees in Whole or in Part
        • 7.3.13.5 Motion for Extension of Time to File Required Documents
        • 7.3.13.6 Forms Required by Local Rules or Practice
    • 7.4 Signing, Verification, and Filing
  • Chapter 8 After the Papers Are Filed
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Advice to Clients
    • 8.3 Events Which May Occur Prior to or After the Section 341 Meeting of Creditors
      • 8.3.1 Notice of the Automatic Stay and Turnover Requirement
      • 8.3.2 Amendments to Statements or Schedules
      • 8.3.3 Personal Financial Management Course
      • 8.3.4 Production of Tax Returns or Transcripts
        • 8.3.4.1 Providing Tax Return or Transcript to Trustee and Creditors
        • 8.3.4.2 Filing Tax Returns or Transcripts with the Court
        • 8.3.4.3 Privacy Concerns and Safeguards
      • 8.3.5 Annual Statements of Income and Expenditures in Chapter 13 Cases
      • 8.3.6 Avoiding Transfers of Exempt Property
      • 8.3.7 Redemption and Assumption of Leases of Personal Property in Chapter 7 Cases
        • 8.3.7.1 Redemption
        • 8.3.7.2 Assumption of Personal Property Leases
      • 8.3.8 Proceedings Regarding Dischargeability of Particular Debts
      • 8.3.9 Objections to Claims of Creditors
      • 8.3.10 Other Disputes That May Arise
      • 8.3.11 Retaining Nonexempt Property in Chapter 7 Cases
      • 8.3.12 Commencement of Payments in Chapter 13 Cases
        • 8.3.12.1 Plan Payments
        • 8.3.12.2 Adequate Protection Payments and Payments to Personal Property Lessors
        • 8.3.12.3 Graduated Plan Payments
      • 8.3.13 Proof of Insurance in Chapter 13 Cases
      • 8.3.14 Filing of Tax Returns with Taxing Authorities in Chapter 13 Cases
      • 8.3.15 Audits and Rule 2004 Examinations
        • 8.3.15.1 Debtor Audits
        • 8.3.15.2 Rule 2004 Examinations
    • 8.4 The Meeting of Creditors
      • 8.4.1 Preparation
      • 8.4.2 Document Requirements
      • 8.4.3 Procedure at the Meeting of Creditors
      • 8.4.4 Attendance of Creditors Seeking Reaffirmation Agreements
      • 8.4.5 Examination of Chapter 7 Debtors' Awareness of Bankruptcy Information— Bankruptcy Information Sheet
      • 8.4.6 Checking Claims That Have Been Filed
    • 8.5 Chapter 7 Cases—After the Meeting of Creditors
    • 8.6 Chapter 13 Confirmation Hearing
    • 8.7 Administration of the Chapter 13 Plan
      • 8.7.1 Trustee Payments to Creditors
      • 8.7.2 Postpetition Claims
      • 8.7.3 Postpetition Mortgage Payments
      • 8.7.4 Modification of the Plan
      • 8.7.5 Debtor's Inability to Complete the Plan
        • 8.7.5.1 Failure to Make Plan Payments
        • 8.7.5.2 Plan Modifications That Enable the Debtor to Complete the Plan
        • 8.7.5.3 Obtaining a Hardship Discharge
        • 8.7.5.4 Conversion to Chapter 7
        • 8.7.5.5 Dismissal
    • 8.8 The Discharge and the Discharge Hearing
      • 8.8.1 Overview
      • 8.8.2 Reaffirmation of Debts
      • 8.8.3 Procedure When There Is a Discharge Hearing
    • 8.9 After Discharge
  • Chapter 9 Automatic Stays and Turnover of Property
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Purpose of the Automatic Stay
    • 9.3 Duration of the Stay
      • 9.3.1 In General
      • 9.3.2 Duration If No Prior Case Was Dismissed in Year Before Petition
      • 9.3.3 Duration If a Prior Case Was Dismissed in Year Before Petition
        • 9.3.3.1 Overview
        • 9.3.3.2 One Prior Case DismissedWithin Previous Year
          • 9.3.3.2.1 General application
          • 9.3.3.2.2 Demonstrating good faith for extension of stay past thirty days
          • 9.3.3.2.3 Overcoming the presumption that case was not filed in good faith
        • 9.3.3.3 Two or More Cases Dismissed Within Previous Year
        • 9.3.3.4 Order Confirming Stay Termination
        • 9.3.3.5 Codebtor Stay Still Applicable
        • 9.3.3.6 Filings in Violation of Section 109(g) or a Prior Court Order— Section 362(b)(21)
    • 9.4 Scope of the Automatic Stay
      • 9.4.1 Introduction
      • 9.4.2 Legal Proceedings
      • 9.4.3 Acts Directed at the Debtor's Property
      • 9.4.4 Other Acts Prohibited by the Stay
      • 9.4.5 The Automatic Stay Protecting Codebtors in Chapter 13
      • 9.4.6 Exceptions to the Automatic Stay
        • 9.4.6.1 Overview
        • 9.4.6.2 Criminal Proceedings
        • 9.4.6.3 Family Law Exceptions
        • 9.4.6.4 Continued Withholding of Income for Loans from Retirement Funds
        • 9.4.6.5 Provisions Based on Prior Bankruptcy Case Filings by Debtor or Related Parties
          • 9.4.6.5.1 In general
          • 9.4.6.5.2 In rem orders
        • 9.4.6.6 Exceptions to Stay of Residential Tenant Evictions
          • 9.4.6.6.1 Overview
          • 9.4.6.6.2 Prepetition judgment for possession
          • 9.4.6.6.3 Illegal use of controlled substances or endangerment to the property
        • 9.4.6.7 Transfers Not Avoidable Under Section 549
        • 9.4.6.8 Setoff of Tax Refunds
        • 9.4.6.9 Other Exceptions Sometimes Applicable in Consumer Cases
      • 9.4.7 Non-Automatic Stays
    • 9.5 Notice of the Automatic Stay
    • 9.6 Enforcing the Stay
      • 9.6.1 Actions Taken in Violation of the Stay Are Void
      • 9.6.2 Cause of Action for Damages, Punitive Damages, and Attorney Fees
      • 9.6.3 Notice Issues
        • 9.6.3.1 Giving Notice
        • 9.6.3.2 Effect of 2005 Amendments on Notice Requirements
          • 9.6.3.2.1 Introduction
          • 9.6.3.2.2 Deletion of safe harbor in section 342(c)
          • 9.6.3.2.3 Creditor notice request given prepetition
          • 9.6.3.2.4 Notice request in particular case
        • 9.6.3.3 Effective Notice Under Section 342
      • 9.6.4 Contempt Remedies
      • 9.6.5 Other Possible Remedies
      • 9.6.6 Remedies Against State and Federal Government
      • 9.6.7 Procedural Issues
    • 9.7 Proceedings Seeking Relief from the Stay
      • 9.7.1 Proceedings Must Be Commenced by Motion
      • 9.7.2 Time Limits for Court Actions
      • 9.7.3 Defending Against Motions for Relief from the Stay
        • 9.7.3.1 Procedural Questions
          • 9.7.3.1.1 Parties
          • 9.7.3.1.2 Discovery
          • 9.7.3.1.3 Defenses and counterclaims
          • 9.7.3.1.4 Burden of proof
          • 9.7.3.1.5 Effect of prior bankruptcy cases involving the same debtor
        • 9.7.3.2 Grounds for Relief
          • 9.7.3.2.1 For cause
          • 9.7.3.2.2 Lack of adequate protection
          • 9.7.3.2.3 Lack of equity or necessity for effective reorganization
          • 9.7.3.2.4 Leases involving residential property
        • 9.7.3.3 Tactics in Stay Litigation
          • 9.7.3.3.1 Valuation problems
          • 9.7.3.3.2 Other tactics
          • 9.7.3.3.3 Stays pending appeal
    • 9.8 Utility Services in Bankruptcy Cases
      • 9.8.1 No Utility May Deny Service Within Twenty Days After Bankruptcy
      • 9.8.2 A Utility May Be Able to Discontinue Service If the Debtor Does Not Furnish Adequate Assurance of Future Payment
        • 9.8.2.1 Procedure
        • 9.8.2.2 Adequate Assurance of Future Payment
          • 9.8.2.2.1 Methods of adequate assurance
          • 9.8.2.2.2 Adequate assurance not always required
          • 9.8.2.2.3 Amount necessary for adequate assurance
          • 9.8.2.2.4 Postpetition termination procedures
          • 9.8.2.2.5 Possible special protections for customers of governmental utilities
    • 9.9 Turnover of Property Under Section 542
      • 9.9.1 The General Rule
      • 9.9.2 Questions of Scope: Secured Parties in Possession
      • 9.9.3 Procedure
      • 9.9.4 Issues of Possession After Turnover
  • Chapter 10 Exemptions
    • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.1.1 Importance of the Exemption Provisions
      • 10.1.2 Definition of Exempt Property
      • 10.1.3 Purposes of Exemptions
    • 10.2 What Property Is Exempt?
      • 10.2.1 The Choice of State or Federal Exemptions
        • 10.2.1.1 In General
        • 10.2.1.2 Determining the Applicable Exemption Law
      • 10.2.2 The Federal Bankruptcy Exemptions
        • 10.2.2.1 In General
        • 10.2.2.2 Homestead—§ 522(d)(1)
        • 10.2.2.3 Motor Vehicle—§ 522(d)(2)
        • 10.2.2.4 Household Goods, Household Furnishings, Wearing Apparel, Appliances, and Similar Items—§ 522(d)(3)
        • 10.2.2.5 Jewelry—§ 522(d)(4)
        • 10.2.2.6 Any Property—§ 522(d)(5)
        • 10.2.2.7 Tools of the Trade—§ 522(d)(6)
        • 10.2.2.8 Unmatured Life Insurance—§ 522(d)(7)
        • 10.2.2.9 Accrued Dividend, Interest, or Loan Value of Life Insurance— § 522(d)(8)
        • 10.2.2.10 Health Aids—§ 522(d)(9)
        • 10.2.2.11 Disability, Retirement, and Other Benefits Replacing Wages— § 522(d)(10)
        • 10.2.2.12 Rights to Compensation for Injury or Losses, and Payments for Lost Earnings—§ 522(d)(11)
        • 10.2.2.13 Pensions and Retirement Accounts—§ 522(d)(12)
          • 10.2.2.13.1 Overview
          • 10.2.2.13.2 Guidelines for exempt retirement funds
          • 10.2.2.13.3 Cap on certain IRA accounts
      • 10.2.3 Using the State and Federal Nonbankruptcy Exemptions
        • 10.2.3.1 Federal Bankruptcy Modifications of These Exemptions
        • 10.2.3.2 Exemption of Property Not Subject to Process
        • 10.2.3.3 Special Retirement Exemptions Available to Debtors Who Utilize State and Federal Nonbankruptcy Exemptions
        • 10.2.3.4 Limitations on State Homestead Exemptions
          • 10.2.3.4.1 In general
          • 10.2.3.4.2 Scope of the new restrictions
          • 10.2.3.4.3 Homestead limitation based on fraudulent conversion of nonexempt property
          • 10.2.3.4.4 Cap on homestead property acquired during 1215-day period before filing
          • 10.2.3.4.5 Homestead cap based on certain criminal or wrongful conduct
            • 10.2.3.4.5.1 Introduction
            • 10.2.3.4.5.2 Felony conviction
            • 10.2.3.4.5.3 Debts arising from certain wrongful conduct
            • 10.2.3.4.5.4 Standing to bring objection to exemption
            • 10.2.3.4.5.5 No cap if homestead reasonably necessary for support
            • 10.2.3.4.5.6 Delay of discharge
            • 10.2.3.4.5.7 Application of homestead caps in joint cases
    • 10.3 Procedure for Claiming Exemptions
      • 10.3.1 The Initial Claim
      • 10.3.2 Amending the Claim of Exemption
      • 10.3.3 Objections to Exemptions
      • 10.3.4 Absent Successful Objections, the Exemptions Are Allowed
    • 10.4 Making the Most of Exemptions
      • 10.4.1 Exemption Planning
      • 10.4.2 Avoiding Powers of the Debtor
        • 10.4.2.1 General Principles
        • 10.4.2.2 Procedure for Use of Avoiding Powers
        • 10.4.2.3 Power to Avoid Judicial Liens—§ 522(f)(1)(A)
          • 10.4.2.3.1 Extent of the power to avoid judicial liens
          • 10.4.2.3.2 Limitations on power to avoid judicial liens
          • 10.4.2.3.3 Avoidance of liens on property which may be claimed as exempt under § 522(b)(2)(B)
        • 10.4.2.4 Power to Avoid Nonpossessory, Nonpurchase-Money Security Interests in Certain Items—§ 522(f)(1)(B)
        • 10.4.2.5 Power to Exempt Property Recovered by Trustee—§ 522(g)
        • 10.4.2.6 Debtor's Right to Utilize Trustee's Avoiding Powers—§ 522(h)
          • 10.4.2.6.1 Overview
          • 10.4.2.6.2 The "strong-arm clause"—§ 544
          • 10.4.2.6.3 Statutory liens—§ 545
          • 10.4.2.6.4 Preferences—§ 547
            • 10.4.2.6.4.1 In general
            • 10.4.2.6.4.2 Exceptions to preference avoiding power
            • 10.4.2.6.4.3 Debtor's use of preference avoiding power
          • 10.4.2.6.5 Fraudulent transfers—§ 548
          • 10.4.2.6.6 Postpetition transfers—§ 549
          • 10.4.2.6.7 Setoff—§ 553
          • 10.4.2.6.8 Liens securing fines, penalties and forfeitures—§ 724(a)
        • 10.4.2.7 Other Limitations on Debtor's Use of Trustee Avoiding Powers
        • 10.4.2.8 Recovery of Property After Transfer Is Avoided
        • 10.4.2.9 Preservation of Avoided Transfers or Recovered Property
        • 10.4.2.10 Limits on Availability of Debtor's Avoiding Powers As Applied to Liens Predating the Bankruptcy Reform Act
    • 10.5 Protection of Exempt Property After Discharge
  • Chapter 11 Dealing with Secured Creditors
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Determination of the Allowed Secured Claim
      • 11.2.1 The Concept of the Allowed Secured Claim
        • 11.2.1.1 General Principles
        • 11.2.1.2 Limitations on Claim Bifurcation in Chapter 7
        • 11.2.1.3 Claim Bifurcation Alive and Well in Other Chapters
      • 11.2.2 Procedure for Determining the Allowed Secured Claim
        • 11.2.2.1 Overview of the Process
        • 11.2.2.2 Date of Valuation
          • 11.2.2.2.1 In general
          • 11.2.2.2.2 Statutory rules for some personal property
        • 11.2.2.3 Method of Valuation
          • 11.2.2.3.1 Valuation standard
          • 11.2.2.3.2 Valuation of motor vehicles
          • 11.2.2.3.3 Property other than automobiles
          • 11.2.2.3.4 Computation of value
    • 11.3 Creditors' Efforts to Obtain Security After Bankruptcy Commenced
      • 11.3.1 Overview
      • 11.3.2 Reclamation of Property
      • 11.3.3 Abandonment of Property by the Trustee
      • 11.3.4 Disposition by the Trustee Under Section 725
      • 11.3.5 Holding of Cash Collateral by Creditors
    • 11.4 Statement of Intention with Respect to Property Securing Consumer Debts and with Respect to Personal Property Leases
      • 11.4.1 Overview
      • 11.4.2 Effect of 2005 Amendments to Section 521(a)(2) and Related Provisions
        • 11.4.2.1 In General
        • 11.4.2.2 No Material Change to the Statutory Language
        • 11.4.2.3 Section 362(h)
        • 11.4.2.4 Section 521(a)(6)
          • 11.4.2.4.1 Overview
          • 11.4.2.4.2 Requirement of allowed claim
          • 11.4.2.4.3 Requirement of claim for the purchase price
          • 11.4.2.4.4 Rights of creditors and debtors when section 521(a)(6) applies
        • 11.4.2.5 Section 521(d)
        • 11.4.2.6 Legislative History of the 2005 Amendments
        • 11.4.2.7 Bankruptcy Policies Supporting the Retain and Pay Option
        • 11.4.2.8 Practice Tips
    • 11.5 Right of Redemption in Chapter 7 Cases
      • 11.5.1 Purpose
      • 11.5.2 Limitations on the Right to Redeem
      • 11.5.3 Redemption by Payment in Installments
      • 11.5.4 Secured Creditors Who Refuse to Agree to Continued Installment Payments
      • 11.5.5 Uses in Practice
    • 11.6 Using Chapter 13 to Deal with Secured Creditors
      • 11.6.1 Modification of Secured Creditors' Rights in Claims Not Secured Only by Real Estate That Is the Debtor's Principal Residence
        • 11.6.1.1 In General
        • 11.6.1.2 Limitations on Modifying Certain Debts Secured Only by Real Estate That Is Debtor's Principal Residence
          • 11.6.1.2.1 In general
          • 11.6.1.2.2 Security interests in the debtor's residence that are not protected by section 1322(b)(2)
            • 11.6.1.2.2.1 Overview
            • 11.6.1.2.2.2 Strip off of wholly unsecured junior mortgages
            • 11.6.1.2.2.3 Short-term and balloon payment mortgages
            • 11.6.1.2.2.4 Mortgages with additional security
            • 11.6.1.2.2.5 Mortgages on multi-family residences
            • 11.6.1.2.2.6 Liens that are not security interests in real property
          • 11.6.1.2.3 Right to cure defaults is not impaired by section 1322(b) (2)
        • 11.6.1.3 Provisions Dealing with Allowed Secured Claims Provided for by the Plan
          • 11.6.1.3.1 Overview
          • 11.6.1.3.2 Creditor acceptance of plan or debtor's surrender of collateral
          • 11.6.1.3.3 Payment of allowed secured claim through plan when creditor does not accept plan
            • 11.6.1.3.3.1 Lien retention and present value of payments— the chapter 13 cramdown
            • 11.6.1.3.3.2 Payments in equal monthly amounts and provision of adequate protection
            • 11.6.1.3.3.3 Filing of the secured claim
            • 11.6.1.3.3.4 Plan need not provide for all secured claims
            • 11.6.1.3.3.5 Determination of allowed secured claim
            • 11.6.1.3.3.6 Trustee's fee and present value interest
            • 11.6.1.3.3.7 Plans not complying with section 1325(a)(5) may be confirmed
        • 11.6.1.4 Different Rules for Secured Claims Described in Paragraph at End of Section 1325(a)
        • 11.6.1.5 Voluntary Loan Modifications in Conjunction with Bankruptcy
      • 11.6.2 Right to Cure Defaults on Long-Term Debts Including Mortgages on Debtor's Residence
        • 11.6.2.1 Overview
        • 11.6.2.2 Cure of Mortgages After Acceleration or Foreclosure Judgment
        • 11.6.2.3 Cure of Mortgages That Mature Before the Bankruptcy Case or Before the End of the Plan
        • 11.6.2.4 Cure Permitted Even If Debtor Has No Personal Liability
        • 11.6.2.5 Length of Time Permitted for Cure
        • 11.6.2.6 Method of Maintaining Current Payments on Debts Being Cured
        • 11.6.2.7 Amount Necessary to Effectuate Cure
          • 11.6.2.7.1 Attorney fees and costs
          • 11.6.2.7.2 Interest on arrears
        • 11.6.2.8 Effect of Cure
          • 11.6.2.8.1 Overview
          • 11.6.2.8.2 Use of Rule 3002.1 to ensure cure is effectuated
            • 11.6.2.8.2.1 Application of Rule 3002.1
            • 11.6.2.8.2.2 Notice of payment change—Rule 3002.1(b)
            • 11.6.2.8.2.3 Notice of postpetition fees—Rule 3002.1(c)
            • 11.6.2.8.2.4 Fee dispute procedure—Rule 3002.1(e)
            • 11.6.2.8.2.5 Notice of final cure payment—Rule 3002.1(f) and Rule 3002.1(h)
            • 11.6.2.8.2.6 Sanctions for noncompliance—Rules 3001(c)(2) (D) and 3002.1(i)
            • 11.6.2.8.2.7 Rule 3002.1 and the attorneys general settlement with major servicers
    • 11.7 Use of Section 506 to Reduce Liens That Are Not Paid Under Section 1325(a)(5)
    • 11.8 Rent-to-Own Transactions in Bankruptcy
    • 11.9 Automobile Title Pawn Transactions in Bankruptcy
  • Chapter 12 Issues Arising in Chapter 13 Cases
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 Eligibility for Chapter 13
      • 12.2.1 Introduction
      • 12.2.2 Individuals with Regular Income
      • 12.2.3 Debt Limitations
        • 12.2.3.1 Determining Whether Debts Are Secured or Unsecured
        • 12.2.3.2 Determining Whether Debts Are Liquidated and Non-Contingent
        • 12.2.3.3 Procedure for Determining Eligibility
        • 12.2.3.4 Strategies for Avoiding Eligibility Problems
    • 12.3 What Amount Must Be Paid to Unsecured Creditors?
      • 12.3.1 Overview
      • 12.3.2 The Best Interests of Creditors Test
      • 12.3.3 Use of the Good Faith Test Prior to the Enactment of the Section 1325(b) Disposable Income Test
      • 12.3.4 The Ability to Pay (Disposable Income) Test
        • 12.3.4.1 Introduction
        • 12.3.4.2 Procedure for Objections Based upon Section 1325(b)
        • 12.3.4.3 Full Payment Test
        • 12.3.4.4 Disposable Income Test
          • 12.3.4.4.1 Use of "current monthly income"
          • 12.3.4.4.2 Exclusions from disposable income
            • 12.3.4.4.2.1 Overview
            • 12.3.4.4.2.2 Child support, foster care, and similar payments
            • 12.3.4.4.2.3 Payments on domestic support obligations
            • 12.3.4.4.2.4 Repayments of pension loans and pension contributions
          • 12.3.4.4.3 Use of means test expense calculations for debtors with incomes above median income
          • 12.3.4.4.4 Administrative expenses
          • 12.3.4.4.5 Calculation of expenses for debtors below median income
          • 12.3.4.4.6 Applicable commitment period and plan length
        • 12.3.4.5 Postconfirmation Modification of Plan Based Upon Change in Circumstances
      • 12.3.5 Use of the Good Faith Test After the 1984 Amendments
      • 12.3.6 Payments to Unsecured Priority Creditors
        • 12.3.6.1 Priority Claims
        • 12.3.6.2 Required Filing of Tax Returns
        • 12.3.6.3 Postpetition Domestic Support Obligation Payments
    • 12.4 Classification of Claims
      • 12.4.1 In General
      • 12.4.2 Claims with Cosigners
      • 12.4.3 Other Classifications
      • 12.4.4 Payments Directly to Creditors
      • 12.4.5 Payments to Former Chapter 7 Trustees
      • 12.4.6 Practical Considerations
    • 12.5 Feasibility of the Plan
    • 12.6 Other Plan Provisions
      • 12.6.1 Payment of Debtor's Income Directly to Trustee
      • 12.6.2 Payment of Interest and Penalties
      • 12.6.3 Length of Plan
      • 12.6.4 Adjustments in Trustee's Charges
      • 12.6.5 Liquidation of Property in Chapter 13
      • 12.6.6 Refinancing a Property During a Chapter 13 Case
    • 12.7 Do the Section 1325(a) Standards Set Mandatory Requirements?
    • 12.8 Use and Possession of Property of the Estate and Adequate Protection
      • 12.8.1 Continuing Use of Property
      • 12.8.2 Adequate Protection
        • 12.8.2.1 Overview
        • 12.8.2.2 Adequate Protection Payments
          • 12.8.2.2.1 When payments required
          • 12.8.2.2.2 Determining the amount and timing of payments
          • 12.8.2.2.3 Remedy for failure to make payments
      • 12.8.3 Payments to Personal Property Lessors
      • 12.8.4 Proof of Insurance
      • 12.8.5 Vesting of Property Upon Confirmation
    • 12.9 Unexpired Leases and Executory Contracts
      • 12.9.1 Definition of Executory Contract
      • 12.9.2 Assumption of a Lease or Executory Contract in Chapter 13
      • 12.9.3 Rejection of Leases or Executory Contracts
        • 12.9.3.1 Overview
        • 12.9.3.2 Residential Leases
        • 12.9.3.3 Credit Insurance
      • 12.9.4 Procedure and Tactics
      • 12.9.5 Assumption or Rejection of Personal Property Leases by Chapter 7 Debtor
        • 12.9.5.1 2005 Amendments
        • 12.9.5.2 Effect of Lease Rejection in Chapter 7
        • 12.9.5.3 Lease Assumption by the Debtor in a Chapter 7 Case
    • 12.10 Chapter 13 Cases After Prior Bankruptcies
      • 12.10.1 Availability of a Discharge
      • 12.10.2 Determining Whether a Prior Discharge Was Under Chapter 7 or Chapter 13
      • 12.10.3 Repeat Filing Still Permissible Even If Discharge Unavailable
    • 12.11 Confirmation of Plan Binds Debtor and All Creditors
  • Chapter 13 Dismissal or Conversion of a Bankruptcy Case
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Voluntary Dismissal of Bankruptcy Cases
    • 13.3 Typical Causes and Effects of Involuntary Dismissal or Conversion to Chapter 7
      • 13.3.1 Reasons for Dismissal or Conversion
      • 13.3.2 "Automatic" Dismissal Under Section 521(i)
    • 13.4 Involuntary Dismissal for Abuse of the Provisions of Chapter 7
      • 13.4.1 In General
      • 13.4.2 Section 707(b) Applicable Only to Debtors with Primarily Consumer Debts
      • 13.4.3 Limits on Section 707(b) Motions for Debtors with Incomes Below State's Median Income
        • 13.4.3.1 Overview
        • 13.4.3.2 Determining the Debtor's Current Monthly Income
          • 13.4.3.2.1 A six-month average normally used
          • 13.4.3.2.2 Payments toward household expenses of debtor or dependents on a regular basis
          • 13.4.3.2.3 Treatment of spouse's income
          • 13.4.3.2.4 Treatment of business income
          • 13.4.3.2.5 Treatment of capital gains and losses
          • 13.4.3.2.6 Withdrawals from an IRA or pension plan
          • 13.4.3.2.7 Explicit statutory exemptions from current monthly income
          • 13.4.3.2.8 Other possible types of income
        • 13.4.3.3 Determining Whether Current Monthly Income Is Above State's Median Family Income
      • 13.4.4 Safe Harbor for Disabled Veterans, Reservists, and National Guard Members
      • 13.4.5 The Means Test Formula
        • 13.4.5.1 Introduction
        • 13.4.5.2 Deduction of IRS Expense Allowances
          • 13.4.5.2.1 General
          • 13.4.5.2.2 IRS national standards for food, clothing, housekeeping supplies, personal care, and miscellaneous expenses
          • 13.4.5.2.3 IRS national standard for out-of-pocket health care expenses
          • 13.4.5.2.4 IRS local standards for transportation expenses
          • 13.4.5.2.5 IRS local standards for housing and utilities
          • 13.4.5.2.6 Other necessary expenses allowed under IRS standards
        • 13.4.5.3 Other Expenses That May Be Deducted
          • 13.4.5.3.1 In general
          • 13.4.5.3.2 Deduction for secured debts
          • 13.4.5.3.3 Deduction for priority debts
          • 13.4.5.3.4 Deduction for health insurance
          • 13.4.5.3.5 Deduction for expenses to maintain safety from domestic violence
          • 13.4.5.3.6 Deduction for support of elderly and disabled family members
          • 13.4.5.3.7 Deduction for administrative expenses
          • 13.4.5.3.8 Deduction for education expenses
          • 13.4.5.3.9 Deduction for charitable contributions
      • 13.4.6 Application of the Means Test Formula
        • 13.4.6.1 Presumption of Abuse
        • 13.4.6.2 Rebutting the Presumption of Abuse
        • 13.4.6.3 Discretionary Dismissal
      • 13.4.7 Other Changes in the Abuse Standard Under Section 707(b)
        • 13.4.7.1 No Challenges Based on Ability to Pay for Debtors with Incomes Below Median Income
        • 13.4.7.2 Substantial Abuse Standard Changed to Abuse Standard
        • 13.4.7.3 Elimination of Explicit Presumption Favoring the Debtor
        • 13.4.7.4 Dismissal for Bad Faith or Based on a Totality of Circumstances Showing Abuse
        • 13.4.7.5 Dismissal for an Abusive Rejection of an Executory Contract
      • 13.4.8 Procedures for Means Testing Under Section 707(b)
    • 13.5 Chapter 7 Involuntary Dismissal Based on Certain Crimes
    • 13.6 Effect of Dismissal
    • 13.7 Conversion of a Bankruptcy Case
      • 13.7.1 Conversion from Chapter 7 to Chapter 13
      • 13.7.2 Conversion from Chapter 13 to Chapter 7
      • 13.7.3 Effect of Conversion
  • Chapter 14 Litigating in the Bankruptcy Court
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 Bankruptcy Court Jurisdiction Under the 1984 Amendments
      • 14.2.1 A Brief History
      • 14.2.2 Initial Referral of Bankruptcy Matters to the Bankruptcy Courts
      • 14.2.3 The Bankruptcy Case
      • 14.2.4 Types of Proceedings
        • 14.2.4.1 Adversary Proceedings, Contested Matters, and Applications
        • 14.2.4.2 Core and Non-Core Proceedings
        • 14.2.4.3 Court's Determination of Jurisdictional Questions
        • 14.2.4.4 Procedure in Non-Core Proceedings
      • 14.2.5 Withdrawal to the District Court
        • 14.2.5.1 In General
        • 14.2.5.2 Mandatory Withdrawal
        • 14.2.5.3 Discretionary Withdrawal
      • 14.2.6 Personal Injury and Wrongful Death Claims
      • 14.2.7 Jury Trials in the Bankruptcy Court
      • 14.2.8 Contempt Powers of the Bankruptcy Courts
    • 14.3 Advantages of the Bankruptcy Court As a Forum
      • 14.3.1 Possibilities of a Fairer Result for the Consumer Client
      • 14.3.2 Avoidance of Substantive or Procedural Difficulties
        • 14.3.2.1 In Personam Jurisdiction, Venue and Service Requirements
        • 14.3.2.2 Sovereign Immunity
        • 14.3.2.3 Overcoming Barriers to Federal Court Access
        • 14.3.2.4 Recoupment Claims in Bankruptcy After Expiration of Limitations Periods
        • 14.3.2.5 Avoiding Mandatory Arbitration Agreements
        • 14.3.2.6 Avoiding Standing and Judicial Estoppel Problems
          • 14.3.2.6.1 In general
          • 14.3.2.6.2 Standing
          • 14.3.2.6.3 Judicial estoppel
    • 14.4 Bringing a Matter Before the Bankruptcy Forum
      • 14.4.1 Removal
        • 14.4.1.1 In General
        • 14.4.1.2 Procedure for Removal
        • 14.4.1.3 Procedure After Removal
        • 14.4.1.4 Remand of Removed Actions
      • 14.4.2 Litigation of Other Claims Commenced by the Debtor
      • 14.4.3 Objections to Claims
        • 14.4.3.1 Overview
        • 14.4.3.2 Claims Filed After Bar Date for Claims
        • 14.4.3.3 Claims Not Enforceable Against the Debtor
        • 14.4.3.4 Objecting to Claims Filed by Mortgage Creditors and Challenging Servicing Abuses
          • 14.4.3.4.1 In general
          • 14.4.3.4.2 Escrow overcharges
          • 14.4.3.4.3 Interest overcharges
          • 14.4.3.4.4 Late charge abuses and other mistakes in crediting payments
          • 14.4.3.4.5 Bankruptcy monitoring fees and other bankruptcy fees
          • 14.4.3.4.6 Undisclosed fees and payment changes
          • 14.4.3.4.7 Standing challenges to proofs of claim based on securitized mortgage debt
          • 14.4.3.4.8 Responding to mortgage servicer abuses by making use of section 524(i)
        • 14.4.3.5 Objecting to Claims Filed by Debt Buyers
        • 14.4.3.6 Objecting Based Upon Prepetition Settlement Attempts—Section 502(k)
        • 14.4.3.7 Reconsideration of Claims
      • 14.4.4 An Example: Truth in Lending Claims of the Debtor
      • 14.4.5 Habeas Corpus
    • 14.5 Abstention
      • 14.5.1 In General
      • 14.5.2 Mandatory Abstention
      • 14.5.3 Discretionary Abstention
    • 14.6 In Forma Pauperis—Filing Fee Waivers in Bankruptcy Cases and Proceedings
      • 14.6.1 General Principles
      • 14.6.2 Statutory Authority of Bankruptcy Courts to Waive Fees
        • 14.6.2.1 Chapter 7 Filing Fee
        • 14.6.2.2 Other Filing Fees
    • 14.7 Class Actions in Bankruptcy Court
    • 14.8 Involuntary Bankruptcy Cases
    • 14.9 Bankruptcy Appeals
      • 14.9.1 Appeals from the Bankruptcy Court
      • 14.9.2 Direct Appeal from Bankruptcy Court to Court of Appeals
      • 14.9.3 Appeals from the District Court or Appellate Panel
      • 14.9.4 What Is a Final Order?
      • 14.9.5 Procedure on Appeals
  • Chapter 15 The Discharge: Protecting It and Using It
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 Objections to Discharge in Chapter 7 Cases
      • 15.2.1 How They Arise
      • 15.2.2 Grounds for Objecting to Discharge
        • 15.2.2.1 Debtor Is Not an Individual—11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(1)
        • 15.2.2.2 Intentional Concealment, Transfer or Destruction of Property— 11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(2)
        • 15.2.2.3 Unjustified Failure to Keep Books or Records As to Finances— 11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(3)
        • 15.2.2.4 Dishonesty in Connection with the Bankruptcy Case—11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(4)
        • 15.2.2.5 Failure to Explain Loss or Deficiency of Assets—11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(5)
        • 15.2.2.6 Refusal to Obey Court Orders or to Testify—11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(6)
        • 15.2.2.7 Commission of Prohibited Acts in Connection with Another Bankruptcy Case Concerning an Insider—11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(7)
        • 15.2.2.8 Prior Discharge in Chapter 7, Chapter 11, or Their Predecessors— 11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(8)
        • 15.2.2.9 Prior Discharge Under Chapter 13—11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(9)
        • 15.2.2.10 Written Waiver of Discharge—11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(10)
        • 15.2.2.11 Failure to Complete Course in Personal Financial Management— 11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(11)
        • 15.2.2.12 Delay of Discharge to Determine Homestead Exemption Rights—11 U.S.C. § 727(a)(12)
    • 15.3 Revocation of Discharge—11 U.S.C. § 727(d)
    • 15.4 Exceptions to Discharge
      • 15.4.1 Differences Between Chapter 7 and Chapter 13
      • 15.4.2 How Exceptions to Discharge Are Raised
      • 15.4.3 Which Debts Are Excepted from Discharge?
        • 15.4.3.1 Taxes—11 U.S.C. §§ 523(a)(1), 1328(a)(2)
          • 15.4.3.1.1 Taxes that cannot be discharged
          • 15.4.3.1.2 Analyzing tax debts to determine dischargeability
        • 15.4.3.2 Debts Incurred Through False Pretenses, Fraud, or False Financial Statements—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(2)
          • 15.4.3.2.1 Overview
          • 15.4.3.2.2 Elements which must be proved by the creditor in cases of alleged false financial statements
            • 15.4.3.2.2.1 Generally
            • 15.4.3.2.2.2 The debtor obtained money, property, services, or an extension, renewal, or refinancing of credit
            • 15.4.3.2.2.3 The statement was materially false and in writing
            • 15.4.3.2.2.4 The statement concerned the financial condition of the debtor or an insider
            • 15.4.3.2.2.5 The creditor reasonably relied upon the false statement
            • 15.4.3.2.2.6 The debtor's intent to deceive
          • 15.4.3.2.3 Debts incurred through false pretenses or fraud
            • 15.4.3.2.3.1 Generally
            • 15.4.3.2.3.2 Credit cards and other credit use with no intent to pay
            • 15.4.3.2.3.3 Public benefits overpayments
          • 15.4.3.2.4 Tactics in cases under 11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(2) and award of attorney fees under 11 U.S.C. § 523(d)
        • 15.4.3.3 Creditors Not Listed or Scheduled by the Debtor—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(3)
        • 15.4.3.4 Fraud As a Fiduciary, Embezzlement, or Larceny—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(4)
        • 15.4.3.5 Domestic Support Obligations—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(5)
          • 15.4.3.5.1 In general
          • 15.4.3.5.2 Support debts owed to governmental units
          • 15.4.3.5.3 Determination of whether debt is a domestic support obligation
        • 15.4.3.6 Willful and Malicious Injury—11 U.S.C. §§ 523(a)(6), 1328(a)(4)
        • 15.4.3.7 Fines and Penalties—11 U.S.C. §§ 523(a)(7), 1328(a)(3)
        • 15.4.3.8 Student Loans—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(8)
          • 15.4.3.8.1 In general
          • 15.4.3.8.2 Student loan dischargeability tests
            • 15.4.3.8.2.1 Former seven-year test
            • 15.4.3.8.2.2 Undue hardship test
          • 15.4.3.8.3 Procedure for dischargeability determination
          • 15.4.3.8.4 Pursuing student loan defenses and nonbankruptcy alternatives
          • 15.4.3.8.5 Special issues regarding student loans in chapter 13
          • 15.4.3.8.6 Health education assistance loans and other special loan programs
        • 15.4.3.9 Debts Incurred Through Drunk Driving—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(9)
        • 15.4.3.10 Debts Not Discharged in Prior Bankruptcy Case—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(10), (b)
        • 15.4.3.11 Debts Emerging from Responsibilities to Federal Depository Institutions—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(11), (12)
        • 15.4.3.12 Federal Criminal Restitution—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(13)
        • 15.4.3.13 Debts Incurred to Pay Nondischargeable Taxes or to Pay Federal Election Law Fines or Penalties—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(14A), (14B)
        • 15.4.3.14 Marital Property Settlement Debts—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(15)
        • 15.4.3.15 Debts for Condominium, Cooperative, or Home Owner Association Fees—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(16)
        • 15.4.3.16 Costs and Fees in Prisoner Litigation—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(17)
        • 15.4.3.17 Pension Loans—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(18)
        • 15.4.3.18 Debts Arising from Securities Violations—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(19)
        • 15.4.3.19 Debts Made Nondischargeable by Other Statutes
        • 15.4.3.20 Debts That Were Nondischargeable in a Previous Bankruptcy Case—11 U.S.C. § 523(b)
      • 15.4.4 Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel in Dischargeability Cases
    • 15.5 The Protections of the Discharge
      • 15.5.1 Effects on Discharged Claims
        • 15.5.1.1 Definition of Claim for Discharge Purposes
        • 15.5.1.2 Elimination of Personal Liability and Protections for Property
        • 15.5.1.3 Voiding of Judgments
        • 15.5.1.4 The Discharge Injunction
      • 15.5.2 Reaffirmation and Security Interests Which Survive Bankruptcy
        • 15.5.2.1 Reaffirmation by Agreement Only
        • 15.5.2.2 Disclosure Requirements
        • 15.5.2.3 Form of the Reaffirmation Agreement
        • 15.5.2.4 Protective Provisions
        • 15.5.2.5 Abusive Creditor Reaffirmation Practices
        • 15.5.2.6 The Undue Hardship and Best Interests Tests
        • 15.5.2.7 Factors to Be Considered by Attorneys Validating Reaffirmation Agreements
      • 15.5.3 Secured Debts Without Reaffirmation
      • 15.5.4 Protection Against Discrimination Based on Bankruptcy
      • 15.5.5 Particular Problems Relating to Discharge Protections
        • 15.5.5.1 Drivers' Licenses
        • 15.5.5.2 Student Loans and College Transcripts
        • 15.5.5.3 Public and Private Housing
        • 15.5.5.4 Social Security, Welfare, and Other Governmental Benefits
        • 15.5.5.5 Criminal Proceedings, Fines, and Incarceration
        • 15.5.5.6 Tax Consequences of the Discharge
        • 15.5.5.7 Enforcement of the Discharge Protections
  • Chapter 16 Attorney Fees for Debtor's Counsel and Attorney Duties in Consumer Bankruptcy Cases
    • 16.1 Introduction
    • 16.2 Initial Fee Arrangements with Clients
      • 16.2.1 The Basic Fee
      • 16.2.2 Amounts Typically Charged
      • 16.2.3 Method of Payment
    • 16.3 Court Supervision of Bankruptcy Attorney Fees
      • 16.3.1 Introduction
      • 16.3.2 Disclosures Required
      • 16.3.3 Bankruptcy Court Review of Fee Disclosures and Requests
      • 16.3.4 Making a Record on Fee Issues
    • 16.4 Payment of Attorney Fees Through the Chapter 13 Plan
      • 16.4.1 Fees Which Can Be Paid Through a Plan
      • 16.4.2 Procedure for Obtaining Payment of Fees Through the Plan
    • 16.5 Other Sources of Attorney Fees in Bankruptcy Cases
      • 16.5.1 Overview
      • 16.5.2 The Civil Rights Attorney's Fees Awards Act of 1976
      • 16.5.3 Consumer Protection Statutes
      • 16.5.4 The Equal Access to Justice Act
      • 16.5.5 Fees As Sanction for Violation of Bankruptcy Rules
        • 16.5.5.1 Rule 9011
        • 16.5.5.2 Rules 3001 and 3002.1
      • 16.5.6 Other Fee-Shifting Provisions
      • 16.5.7 Limitations on Fee Awards Against Governmental Units
    • 16.6 Services Provided by Petition Preparers and Other Non-Attorneys
    • 16.7 Duties of Debtors' Counsel Under Bankruptcy Rule 9011 and Related Provisions
      • 16.7.1 Federal Rule of Bankruptcy Procedure 9011
      • 16.7.2 Section 707(b)(4)
        • 16.7.2.1 Costs and Attorney Fees for Successful Section 707(b) Motions— § 707(b)(4)(A)
        • 16.7.2.2 Civil Penalties Under Bankruptcy Rule 9011—§ 707(b)(4)(B)
        • 16.7.2.3 Attorney Certifications—§ 707(b)(4)(C)
        • 16.7.2.4 Attorney Certification As to Schedules—§ 707(b)(4)(D)
    • 16.8 Debt Relief Agency Provisions
      • 16.8.1 Applicability of Debt Relief Agency Provisions to Debtor's Attorney
        • 16.8.1.1 Definition of Debt Relief Agency
        • 16.8.1.2 Persons Specifically Excluded from the Definition of Debt Relief Agency
      • 16.8.2 Restrictions on Debt Relief Agencies
      • 16.8.3 Disclosures Required of Debt Relief Agencies
        • 16.8.3.1 Relationship Between Section 527 and Section 342(b)(1) Disclosures
        • 16.8.3.2 Disclosures Concerning the Bankruptcy Process
        • 16.8.3.3 Required Statement About Bankruptcy Assistance Services
        • 16.8.3.4 Disclosures Required of Non-Attorney Agencies That Prepare Bankruptcy Documents
      • 16.8.4 Written Contract Under Section 528(a)
      • 16.8.5 Advertising Requirements Under Section 528(a)
      • 16.8.6 Remedies for Failure to Comply with Debt Relief Agency Provisions
  • Chapter 17 Chapter 12 Bankruptcy: Family Farmer and Family Fisherman Reorganization
    • 17.1 Overview
      • 17.1.1 Evolution and Historical Background of Chapter 12
        • 17.1.1.1 Current Status of Chapter 12
        • 17.1.1.2 Purpose of Chapter 12
      • 17.1.2 Special Bankruptcy Code Protections Outside of Chapter 12
      • 17.1.3 Farmer Reorganizations Under Chapters Other Than Chapter 12
        • 17.1.3.1 Overview
        • 17.1.3.2 Problems Under Chapter 13 for Farmers
        • 17.1.3.3 Problems Under Chapter 11 for Farmers
      • 17.1.4 The Unique Nature of Farm Finance
        • 17.1.4.1 Overview
        • 17.1.4.2 The Farm Credit System
        • 17.1.4.3 The Farm Service Agency Loan Programs
        • 17.1.4.4 The Federal Farm Programs
          • 17.1.4.4.1 Treatment in bankruptcy
          • 17.1.4.4.2 Basic attributes of federal farm programs
      • 17.1.5 Timing a Chapter 12 Filing
    • 17.2 Commencement of a Case
      • 17.2.1 Introduction
      • 17.2.2 Eligibility for Chapter 12 Relief
        • 17.2.2.1 In General
        • 17.2.2.2 The Regular Annual Income Requirement
        • 17.2.2.3 The "Engaged in a Farming Operation" Requirement
        • 17.2.2.4 Definition of "Family Farmer" and "Family Fisherman"
          • 17.2.2.4.1 Overview
          • 17.2.2.4.2 Debt ceiling
          • 17.2.2.4.3 Debt arising from the farm operation or commercial fishing operation
          • 17.2.2.4.4 Income arising from the farming operation or the commercial fishing operation
          • 17.2.2.4.5 Eligibility requirements for partnerships and corporate farmers
        • 17.2.2.5 Joint Chapter 12 Filings
      • 17.2.3 Initial Schedules, Forms, and Fees
        • 17.2.3.1 Schedules
        • 17.2.3.2 Appointment of Counsel
        • 17.2.3.3 Costs and Attorney Fees
        • 17.2.3.4 Other Reports and Documentation
      • 17.2.4 Voluntary Conversion from Other Chapters to Chapter 12
      • 17.2.5 What to Expect at the Meeting of Creditors
    • 17.3 The Family Farmer As Debtor-in-Possession
      • 17.3.1 What Is a Debtor-in-Possession?
      • 17.3.2 Removal of the Farmer As a Debtor-in-Possession
    • 17.4 General Principles
      • 17.4.1 The Chapter 12 Trustee
        • 17.4.1.1 Role and Standing of the Trustee
        • 17.4.1.2 Payments Made Through the Chapter 12 Trustee and Trustee Compensation
          • 17.4.1.2.1 General
          • 17.4.1.2.2 Challenges to variations in trustee costs paid by different debtors
          • 17.4.1.2.3 Avoiding the trustee commission for certain payments
          • 17.4.1.2.4 Does the trustee receive a fee on its fee?
        • 17.4.1.3 Role of the Chapter 12 Trustee upon Removal of the Family Farmer As a Debtor-in-Possession
      • 17.4.2 What Constitutes Property of the Estate
      • 17.4.3 Exemptions, Lien Avoidance, and Recapture Powers
        • 17.4.3.1 Exemptions Available to Family Farmers Under Chapter 12
        • 17.4.3.2 Exemptions for "Tools of Trade" and "Livestock"
        • 17.4.3.3 Lien Avoidance Under Section 522(f)
        • 17.4.3.4 Section 552 Lien Dissolution
        • 17.4.3.5 Other Avoidance and Recapture Powers of the Family Farmer Debtor-in-Possession
          • 17.4.3.5.1 In general
          • 17.4.3.5.2 Recovery of property as a fraudulent transfer
          • 17.4.3.5.3 Preferential transfers
          • 17.4.3.5.4 Avoidance of improperly perfected security interests
          • 17.4.3.5.5 Redemption and cure
      • 17.4.4 The Automatic Stay and Codebtor Stay in Chapter 12 Cases
        • 17.4.4.1 The Automatic Stay
        • 17.4.4.2 The Codebtor Stay
        • 17.4.4.3 Grounds for Relief from the Automatic Stay
      • 17.4.5 Objections to Discharge
      • 17.4.6 Dismissal and Conversion
        • 17.4.6.1 Voluntary Dismissal
        • 17.4.6.2 Involuntary Dismissal
        • 17.4.6.3 Voluntary Conversion from Chapter 12 to Other Chapters
        • 17.4.6.4 Involuntary Conversion from Chapter 12 to Chapter 7
      • 17.4.7 Executory Contracts and Unexpired Leases
        • 17.4.7.1 Overview
        • 17.4.7.2 Federal Farm Program Contracts As Executory Contracts
        • 17.4.7.3 Installment Land Contracts As Executory Contracts
        • 17.4.7.4 Unexpired Equipment Leases
        • 17.4.7.5 Unexpired Farmland Rental Agreements
      • 17.4.8 Use of Cash Collateral
      • 17.4.9 New Financing and Its Approval
      • 17.4.10 Sale of Property Free and Clear of Liens
      • 17.4.11 Adequate Protection Under Chapter 12
      • 17.4.12 Creditors' Right to Set Off
    • 17.5 The Chapter 12 Reorganization Process
      • 17.5.1 Introduction
      • 17.5.2 Procedure and Timing in Chapter 12 Cases
      • 17.5.3 Determining the Value of the Creditor's Claims: The Allowed Secured Claim
      • 17.5.4 Chapter 12 Plan Requirements: Secured Claims
        • 17.5.4.1 In General
        • 17.5.4.2 Amortization and Extending Plan Payments Beyond the Plan's Life
        • 17.5.4.3 Interest Rates for Secured Creditors
        • 17.5.4.4 Return or Surrender of Property to Secured Creditors
        • 17.5.4.5 Sale of Property Free and Clear of Liens
        • 17.5.4.6 Replacement Liens
      • 17.5.5 Chapter 12 Plan Requirements: Unsecured Claims
        • 17.5.5.1 In General
        • 17.5.5.2 The Liquidation Test
        • 17.5.5.3 The Disposable Income Requirement
        • 17.5.5.4 Treatment of Priority Unsecured Creditors
      • 17.5.6 Classification of Claims
        • 17.5.6.1 Introduction
        • 17.5.6.2 Classification of Codebtor Claims
        • 17.5.6.3 Classification of the Claims of Unsecured Creditors
        • 17.5.6.4 Classification of the Claims of Secured Creditors
      • 17.5.7 Other Chapter 12 Plan Requirements
        • 17.5.7.1 Good Faith Test
        • 17.5.7.2 The Feasibility Requirement
          • 17.5.7.2.1 General observations
          • 17.5.7.2.2 Determination of feasibility
        • 17.5.7.3 Trustee Fees and the Direct Payment Issue
      • 17.5.8 Additional Protections for Domestic Support Obligations
      • 17.5.9 Other Plan Provisions
    • 17.6 Denial of Confirmation
    • 17.7 The Chapter 12 Discharge and Its Operation
      • 17.7.1 Scope of the Chapter 12 Discharge
      • 17.7.2 The Hardship Discharge
      • 17.7.3 Revocation of Discharge
    • 17.8 Postconfirmation Issues
      • 17.8.1 Postconfirmation Modification of the Chapter 12 Plan
      • 17.8.2 Postconfirmation Indebtedness
      • 17.8.3 Revocation of Confirmation
  • Chapter 18 Consumers As Creditors in Bankruptcy: Selected Topics
    • 18.1 Introduction
    • 18.2 Prebankruptcy Strategy
      • 18.2.1 Preparing for the Debtor's Voluntary Bankruptcy
      • 18.2.2 Putting the Debtor into Involuntary Bankruptcy
    • 18.3 The Automatic Stay
      • 18.3.1 Introduction
      • 18.3.2 Relief from the Stay
      • 18.3.3 Practical Considerations Applicable to Stay Relief Issues
      • 18.3.4 Tenants' Counterclaims Against a Bankrupt Landlord
    • 18.4 Filing a Proof of Claim
      • 18.4.1 For Individual Consumer Creditors
      • 18.4.2 Class Proofs of Claim
    • 18.5 Strategies to Increase the Chance of Recovery
      • 18.5.1 General
      • 18.5.2 Property Which Is Not Part of the Bankruptcy Estate—Trust Funds
        • 18.5.2.1 General
        • 18.5.2.2 Determining the Existence of a Trust
        • 18.5.2.3 Tracing Trust Funds
      • 18.5.3 Postpetition Claims As Administrative Expenses
      • 18.5.4 Challenging Dischargeability
        • 18.5.4.1 General
        • 18.5.4.2 Individual Debtors in Chapters 7, 11, and 12
          • 18.5.4.2.1 Grounds for a finding of nondischargeability
          • 18.5.4.2.2 Procedures for obtaining a determination of nondischargeability
        • 18.5.4.3 Chapter 13
        • 18.5.4.4 Corporate or Partnership Debtors
      • 18.5.5 The Consumer Priority
      • 18.5.6 Equitable Subordination
      • 18.5.7 Seeking Defendants Not in Bankruptcy
      • 18.5.8 Rule 2004 Examinations
    • 18.6 In Forma Pauperis
      • 18.6.1 Need for Consumers As Creditors to Proceed In Forma Pauperis
      • 18.6.2 Seeking In Forma Pauperis Relief
    • 18.7 Chapter 11
      • 18.7.1 Introduction
      • 18.7.2 General Role of Creditors and the United States Trustee
        • 18.7.2.1 Creditors' Right to Vote on the Debtor's Plan
        • 18.7.2.2 Creditors' Right to Participate in the Chapter 11 Plan
        • 18.7.2.3 The United States Trustee
      • 18.7.3 Appointment of a Creditors' Committee
      • 18.7.4 Appointment of a Trustee or an Examiner
        • 18.7.4.1 Introduction
        • 18.7.4.2 General Standards
        • 18.7.4.3 Grounds for Appointment of a Trustee Under Section 1104(a)(1)
        • 18.7.4.4 Grounds for Appointment of a Trustee Under Section 1104(a)(2)
        • 18.7.4.5 Appointment of a Trustee for Fraud, Dishonesty or Criminal Conduct by Insiders
        • 18.7.4.6 Appointment of an Examiner
        • 18.7.4.7 Practice and Procedure
      • 18.7.5 Objection to Compensation Paid to Debtor's Principals
      • 18.7.6 Transfer Avoidance Actions
      • 18.7.7 Objections to the Debtor's Disclosure Statement
      • 18.7.8 Objections to the Debtor's Plan of Reorganization
      • 18.7.9 Creditor's Plan of Reorganization
      • 18.7.10 Special Provisions Applicable to Small Business Bankruptcies
      • 18.7.11 Seeking Dismissal or Conversion of a Chapter 11 Case
      • 18.7.12 Representing Employees and Other Industrial Stakeholders in Chapter 11 Proceedings
        • 18.7.12.1 Introduction
        • 18.7.12.2 Employee Priority Claims
        • 18.7.12.3 Job Retention Strategies in Chapter 11 Proceedings
          • 18.7.12.3.1 Introduction
          • 18.7.12.3.2 Right to intervene
          • 18.7.12.3.3 Opposing a chapter 11 liquidation
          • 18.7.12.3.4 Placing conditions upon approval of a sale of the debtor's business
          • 18.7.12.3.5 Other job retention strategies
    • 18.8 Special Problems of Tenants
      • 18.8.1 General
      • 18.8.2 Maintaining Services When Private Landlords File Chapter 7 Bankruptcy
        • 18.8.2.1 Abandonment by a Chapter 7 Trustee
        • 18.8.2.2 Legal Theories to Prevent Abandonment
        • 18.8.2.3 Loss of Services Without Abandonment
        • 18.8.2.4 Steps to Take
        • 18.8.2.5 Forcing Abandonment to the Lender
        • 18.8.2.6 Maintaining Services in the Event the Property Has Been Abandoned
      • 18.8.3 Pursuing Opportunities for Tenant Ownership in a Chapter 7 Bankruptcy
      • 18.8.4 Preventing Evictions in Chapter 11 and 13 Proceedings
      • 18.8.5 Security Deposits
    • 18.9 Representing Consumers When Lenders File Bankruptcy
      • 18.9.1 Lender Bankruptcies
      • 18.9.2 Automatic Stay Issues for Consumer Borrowers
      • 18.9.3 Loan Company Sales of Assets Under 11 U.S.C. § 363
      • 18.9.4 Filing a Proof of Claim for a Consumer Borrower
      • 18.9.5 Third-Party and Successor Releases and Injunctions
    • 18.10 Other Mechanisms to Protect Consumers in Business Bankruptcies
  • Bibliography
  • Index
Volume Two
  • Appendix A Bankruptcy Statutes
    • A.1 Selected Provisions of the Bankruptcy Code, 11 U.S.C. §§ 101–1532
    • A.2 Selected Provisions of Title 28 of the United States Code
    • A.3 Selected Provisions of Other Titles of the United States Code
    • A.4 Selected Uncodified Provisions of Bankruptcy Acts
      • A.4.1 Selected Provisions of Title IV [Transition] of Bankruptcy Act of 1978 (as amended by the Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of 1984)
      • A.4.2 Selected Provisions of the Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of 1984
      • A.4.3 Selected Provisions of Title III [Transition and Administrative Provisions] of Bankruptcy Judges, United States Trustees, and Family Farmer Bankruptcy Act of 1986 (as amended by the Judicial Improvements Act of 1990)
      • A.4.4 Provisions Related to Effective Date of 1990 and 1991 Student Loan Dischargeability Issues
      • A.4.5 Selected Provisions of the Judicial Improvements Act of 1990
      • A.4.6 Selected Provisions of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1994
      • A.4.7 Selected Provision of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000
      • A.4.8 Selected Provision of the Federal Courts Improvements Act of 2000
      • A.4.9 Selected Provisions of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005
  • Appendix B Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure
  • Appendix C Bankruptcy Regulations, Fees, and Agency Notices
    • C.1 Final Rule on Credit Counseling Agencies, 28 C.F.R. Part 58
    • C.2 Debtor Audits
      • C.2.1 Debtor Audit Standards, 71 Fed. Reg. 58,005 (Oct. 2, 2006)
      • C.2.2 Information on Debtor Audits
      • C.2.3 Debtor Audit Document Request Form
    • C.3 Miscellaneous Fees
    • C.4 Electronic Public Access Fee Schedule
  • Appendix D Official Bankruptcy Forms with Annotated Samples
    • D.1 How to Complete the Official Bankruptcy Forms
      • D.1.1 Introduction
      • D.1.2 The Initial Forms
      • D.1.3 Permitted Alterations to the Official Forms
      • D.1.4 Electronic Case Filing (ECF)
        • D.1.4.1 Overview
        • D.1.4.2 Converting Documents to PDF Format
    • D.2 Annotated and Completed Bankruptcy Forms to Institute a Case
    • D.3 Other Official Bankruptcy Forms Filed Later in the Case
  • Appendix E Director's Procedural Forms
    • E.1 Introduction
    • E.2 Notice to Individual Consumer Debtor Under § 342(b) of the Bankruptcy Code
    • E.3 Statement of Attorney Compensation Under Bankruptcy Rule 2016(b)
    • E.4 Disclosure of Compensation of Attorney for Debtor
    • E.5 Adversary Proceeding Cover Sheet
    • E.6 Summons
      • E.6.1 Summons and Notice of Trial in an Adversary Proceeding
      • E.6.2 Summons in an Adversary Proceeding
      • E.6.3 Third-Party Summons
    • E.7 Subpoenas
      • E.7.1 Subpoena for Rule 2004 Examination
      • E.7.2 Subpoena in an Adversary Proceeding
      • E.7.3 Subpoena in a Case Under the Bankruptcy Code
    • E.8 Discharge Orders
      • E.8.1 Order Discharging Joint Debtors in Chapter 7 Case
      • E.8.2 Order Discharging One Joint Debtor in Chapter 7 Case
      • E.8.3 Order Discharging Debtor After Completion of Chapter 13 Plan
      • E.8.4 Order Discharging Debtor Before Completion of Chapter 13 Plan
      • E.8.5 Order Discharging Debtor After Completion of Chapter 12 Plan
      • E.8.6 Order Discharging Debtor Before Completion of Chapter 12 Plan
    • E.9 Disclosure of Compensation of Bankruptcy Petition Preparer
    • E.10 Reaffirmation Agreement
    • E.11 Appearance of Child Support Creditor or Representative
    • E.12 Statement of Military Service
    • E.13 Required Lists, Schedules, Statements and Fees
    • E.14 Chapter 13 Debtor's Certifications Regarding Domestic Support Obligations and Section 522(g)
  • Appendix F Bankruptcy Questionnaire
  • Appendix G Sample Bankruptcy Pleadings and Other Forms
    • G.1 Introduction
    • G.2 Pre-Filing Forms
    • G.3 Initial Forms
    • G.4 Automatic Stay
    • G.5 Turnover of Property
    • G.6 Utilities
    • G.7 Steps After Filing
    • G.8 Claims
    • G.9 Exemptions and Lien Avoidance
    • G.10 Litigation
    • G.11 Privacy Protection
    • G.12 Discharge and Reaffirmation
    • G.13 Conversion, Dismissal, and Modification of Plan After Confirmation
    • G.14 Consumers As Creditors
    • G.15 Family Farmer Reorganization
  • Appendix H Practice Aids
    • H.1 Date Calculator
    • H.2 Obtaining Tax Returns or Transcripts from the Internal Revenue Service
    • H.3 Interim Guidance Regarding Tax Information
    • H.4 Helpful Resources from the United States Trustee Program
    • H.5 Best Practices for Consumer Bankruptcy Cases (including Commentary)
    • H.6 Interim Procedures Regarding the Chapter 7 Fee Waiver Provisions
    • H.7 Best Practices for Document Production Requests by Trustees in Consumer Bankruptcy Cases
  • Appendix I Means Test Data
    • I.1 Median Income by State
    • I.2 Internal Revenue Service Standards As to Allowable Expenses
      • I.2.1 Internal Revenue Manual (IRM) Provisions Regarding Allowable Expenses
      • I.2.2 National Standards for Allowable Living Expenses
      • I.2.3 Local Housing and Utilities Expense Standards
      • I.2.4 Local Transportation Expense Standards
      • I.2.5 Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expense Standard
      • I.2.6 Administrative Expenses Multipliers
  • Appendix J Summaries of State Exemption Laws
  • Appendix K Bankruptcy Client Handouts
    • K.1 Introduction
    • K.2 Answers to Common Bankruptcy Questions
    • K.3 Your Legal Rights During and After Bankruptcy: Making the Most of Your Bankruptcy Discharge
    • K.4 Using Credit Wisely After Bankruptcy
  • Appendix L Helpful Websites
  • Appendix M Finding Pleadings and Primary Sources on the Companion Website
    • M.1 Introduction
    • M.2 Pleadings and Primary Sources Found on the Companion Website
    • M.3 How to Access the Website
    • M.4 Locating Documents on the Website
    • M.5 How to Use the Documents, Find Microsoft Word Versions, and Locate Additional Features
    • M.6 Electronic Searches of This and Other NCLC Titles' Chapters
Index

Download Index in PDF format

  • ABANDONMENT OF PROPERTY
    • apartment buildings, 18.8.2.1, 18.8.2.2, 18.8.2.5, 18.8.2.6
    • automatic stay, effect, 11.3.3
    • irrevocable decision, 3.5.1
    • no significant nonexempt equity, 3.5.1, 8.3.11
    • prohibition by court, 11.3.3
    • request by debtor, 3.5.1
    • request by secured creditor, 11.3.3
    • right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
  • ABILITY TO PAY TEST
    • see also CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME; DISPOSABLE INCOME
    • bad faith and, 13.4.7.4
    • chapter 13 plan, 12.3.4
      • change in circumstances, 12.3.4.5
      • disposable income test, 12.3.4.4
      • full payment test, 12.3.4.3
      • generally, 7.3.12.3, 12.3.4.1
      • incomes below threshold, 13.4.7.1
      • objections, 12.3.4.2
  • ABSTENTION
    • discretionary abstention, 14.5.3
    • generally, 14.5.1
    • mandatory abstention, 14.5.2
  • ABUSE OF CHAPTER 7
    • attorney certification, 16.7.2.3
    • changes to standard, 13.4.7
    • dismissal of case, 3.2.1.5, 13.4
      • consumer debts, 13.4.2
      • discretionary dismissal, 13.4.6.3
      • generally, 13.4.1
      • incomes above threshold, 13.4.3, 13.4.7.1
      • procedure, 13.4.8
      • safe harbor, 13.4.4
    • means test, see MEANS TEST
    • presumption of abuse, see PRESUMPTION OF ABUSE
  • ACTIONS
    • see also CIVIL PROCEEDINGS
    • automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, against, 16.6
    • class actions, see CLASS ACTIONS
    • consumer protection actions, 16.5.3
    • damages, see DAMAGES
    • discharge protections, enforcement, 15.5.1.4, 15.5.5.7
    • postpetition claims
      • consumers as creditors, 18.5.3
      • discharge, 4.6, 8.7.2, 13.7.2
      • utilities, 9.8.2.2.4
    • prepetition causes of action
      • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
      • pursuing, 16.5.3
      • standing, 14.3.2.6.2
      • unlisted, judicial estoppel, 14.3.2.6.3
  • ADDRESSES
    • change of address, duty to notify, 8.2
    • creditors, for notice purposes, 9.6.3.2.3, 9.6.3.2.4
  • ADEQUATE ASSURANCE
    • lease or executory contract, 12.9.2
    • utilities, 9.8.2.2
      • amount necessary, 9.8.2.2.3
      • local practice, 9.8.2.1
      • methods of assurance, 9.8.2.2.1
      • when required, 9.8.2.2.2
  • ADEQUATE PROTECTION
    • automatic stay, 9.7.3.2.2, 12.8.2.3
      • chapter 12, 17.4.4.3, 17.4.11
    • automatic turnover, 9.9.3
    • cash collateral use, 17.4.8
    • property in possession of debtor, 12.8.2
    • secured creditors
      • chapter 12, 17.4.11
      • chapter 13 payments, 8.3.12.2, 11.6.1.3.3.2, 12.8.2.2
      • first steps after chapter 13 filing, 4.3
  • ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BANKRUPTCY
    • see also BANKRUPTCY
    • advantages
      • automatic stay, 6.2.1.4
      • discharge of most debts, 6.2.1.1
      • litigation advantages, 6.2.1.6
      • other protections, 6.2.1.5
      • secured debts, regarding, 6.2.1.3
      • unsecured creditors, protection from, 6.2.1.2
    • disadvantages
      • cost of filing, 6.2.2.6
      • credit and reputation, effect on, 6.2.2.3
      • discharge unavailable, 6.2.2.8.2
      • feelings of moral obligation, 6.2.2.5
      • loss of property, 6.2.2.2
      • possible discrimination, 6.2.2.4
      • situations when wrong tool, 6.2.2.8.1
      • weighing, 6.2.2.7
    • joint filings, 6.4
    • type of case
      • chapter 7 advantages, 6.3.2
      • chapter 11 situations, 6.3.4
      • chapter 13 advantages, 6.3.3
  • ADVERSARY PROCEEDINGS
    • see under BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
  • ADVERTISEMENTS
    • debt relief agencies, 16.8.5
  • ALIMONY
    • see DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
  • ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS
    • see also CLAIMS BY CREDITORS; SECURED CREDITORS
    • adequate protection payments, 11.6.1.3.3.2, 12.8.2.2
    • bifurcation of claims, 11.7
      • chapter 7, 11.2.1.2
      • chapter 12, 11.2.1.3, 17.5.3
      • chapter 13, 11.2.1.3, 12.2.3.1
    • chapter 12 cramdown, 17.5.4
    • chapter 13 conversion to chapter 7, 13.7.3
    • chapter 13 cramdown, 11.6.1, 11.7
    • chapter 13 plans, payment through, 11.6.1.3
    • collateral, statement of intention, 11.4
    • defined, 11.1, 11.4.2.4.2
    • determination, 11.2
      • chapter 12, 17.5.3
      • chapter 13, 11.6.1.3.3.5, 11.6.1.4
      • procedure, 11.2.2
    • family farmer reorganizations, see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
    • general principles, 11.2.1.1
    • government liens, 11.2.1.1
    • hardship discharge, 4.7.2
    • interest and fees, 11.6.1.3.3.6
    • means test deductions, 13.4.5.3.2
    • objections, 11.2.2.1, 11.6.1.3.3.5
    • reaffirmation, 11.5.4
    • recent purchases, 11.6.1.4
    • reconsideration, 14.4.3.7
    • right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
    • valuation
      • appraisal, necessity, 11.2.2.3.4
      • chapter 12, 17.5.3
      • converted cases, 13.7.3
      • date, 11.2.2.2
      • exempt property, inclusion, 11.2.2.3.4
      • generally, 11.2.2.1, 11.6.1.3.3.5
      • method, 11.2.2.3
      • present value, 11.6.1.3.3.1, 11.6.1.3.3.6
  • APPEALS
    • abstention decision, 14.5.1, 14.5.2
    • appellate panel service
      • see also BANKRUPTCY APPELLATE PANEL (BAP)
      • from, 2.4.3, 14.9.3
      • to, 2.4.3, 14.9.1
    • automatic stay relief, 9.7.3.3.3
    • bankruptcy court, from, 2.4.3, 14.9.1
    • consumer awards, 18.2.1
    • court of appeals, to, 2.4.3, 14.9.2
      • certification, Official Form 24, Appx. D.3
    • district court
      • from, 2.4.3, 14.9.3
      • to, 2.4.3, 14.9.1
    • final orders, 14.9.4
    • in forma pauperis, 14.6.1
    • notice of appeal, Official Form 17, Appx. D.3
    • procedures, time, 14.9.5
    • stay pending, 9.7.3.3.3, 14.9.5
  • APPRAISALS
    • see also VALUATION
    • allowed secured claims, necessity, 11.2.2.3.3
  • ARBITRATION CLAUSES
    • avoiding, 14.3.2.5
  • ASSETS
    • see also PROPERTY
    • concealment, effect, 15.2.2.2
    • distribution to creditors, 3.5.4
    • loss or deficiency, failure to explain, 15.2.2.5
    • no-asset case, defined, 3.1
    • nominal asset cases, 3.5, 8.3.11
  • ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE
    • trustees in bankruptcy, claiming debtor's, 2.6
  • ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
    • see also ATTORNEYS
    • amounts typically charged, 16.2.2
    • automatic stay violations, 9.6.2
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, 16.6
    • bankruptcy rule violations, sanctions, 16.5.5
    • basic fee, 16.2.1, 16.3.3
    • chapter 12 reorganizations
      • disclosure, 17.2.3.3
      • payment through plan, 17.5.7.3, 17.5.9
    • chapter 13 plans
      • collection means, 6.3.3
      • deduction from disposable income, 12.3.4.4.4
      • payment under, 7.3.12.3, 16.4
      • priority claim, 12.3.6.1
    • civil rights awards, 16.5.2
    • consumer protection awards, 16.5.3
    • court supervision, 16.3
    • creditors' committees, 18.7.2.2
    • dischargeability complaints, 15.4.3.2.4
    • disclosure form, 7.3.13.2, Appx. E.4
      • filing, 7.2.1
    • disclosure requirements, 7.3.13.2, 16.3.2
    • dismissed cases, liability, 16.7.2.1
    • divorce proceedings, dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.3
    • equal access to justice awards, 16.5.4
    • estate property, payment from, 16.2.3
    • fee-shifting provisions, 16.5.6
    • governmental units, awards against, 16.5.7
    • initial arrangements, 16.2
    • method of payment, 16.2.3
    • motion to dismiss, 16.7.2.1
    • non-attorney services, 16.3.2, 16.3.3, 16.6
    • nonpayment, effect, 16.2.2
    • postpetition services, 16.2.3
    • prepetition services, 16.2.3
    • prevailing debtors, 16.5
    • record on fee issues, 16.3.4
    • right to cure, allowable, 11.6.2.7.1
    • Rule 3001 and Rule 3002.1 sanctions, 11.6.2.8.2.6, 16.5.5.2
    • Rule 9011 sanctions, 16.5.5.1
    • statement of fees charged, 16.3.2, Appx. E.3
    • tax refunds, assignment to pay, 2.5.5
    • unusual aspects, 16.1
  • ATTORNEYS
    • bankruptcy petitions, filing on behalf of debtor, 3.2.1.1
      • signature, 16.7.2.3, 16.7.2.4
    • chapter 11, appointment, 17.2.3.2
    • chapter 12, appointment, 17.2.3.2
    • confirmation hearings, attendance, 8.6
    • costs, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
    • counseling the debtor, 6.1, Appx. K
      • see also COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR; PRACTICE AIDS
    • creditor's attorney, listing in schedule, 7.3.7.3.4
    • debt relief agencies, as
      • advertising requirements, 16.8.5
      • disclosure requirements, 16.8.3.2
      • failure to comply with provisions, 16.8.6
      • restrictions on advice, 16.8.2
      • statement about services, 16.8.3.3
      • status, 16.8.1
      • written contract requirement, 16.8.4
    • declaration on petition, 7.3.2, 7.3.6, 7.4
    • duties
      • debt relief agency provisions, 16.8
      • Federal Rule of Bankruptcy Procedure 9011, 16.7
    • Federal Rule of Bankruptcy Procedure 9011
      • duties, 16.7.1
      • sanctions, 16.5.5.1
      • violations, 16.7.2.2
    • fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
    • privilege, see ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE
    • reaffirmation agreements, validating, 15.5.2.4, 15.5.2.7
    • role of non-attorneys, see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
    • signature as certification, 16.7.2.3
      • schedules, 16.7.2.4
    • statement about bankruptcy assistance services, 16.8.3.3
    • unbundling services, 16.2.1
  • AUDITS
    • debtor audits, 8.3.15.1, Appx. C.2
  • AUTOMATIC STAY
    • abandoned property, effect, 11.3.3
    • adequate protection, 9.7.3.2.2, 12.8.2.2.3
    • advantage of bankruptcy, 6.2.1.4
    • advice to clients, 8.2
    • appeal pending, effect, 9.7.3.3.3
    • bankruptcy monitoring fees, 14.4.3.4.5
    • chapter 7, 3.3
    • chapter 12
      • adequate protection, 17.4.4.3, 17.4.11
      • application, generally, 17.4.4.1
      • codebtor stay, 17.4.4.2
      • relief, grounds, 17.4.4.3
    • chapter 13, 4.3
      • inability to complete plan, 8.7.5
    • codebtor stay, 6.2.1.4, 9.3.3.5, 9.4.5, 17.4.4.2
    • consumers as creditors, 18.3, 18.9.2
    • disputes that may arise, 8.3.10
    • duration, 9.3
      • no prior case dismissed in year prior, 9.3.2
      • prior case dismissed in year prior, 9.3.3
    • enforcement, 9.6
    • exceptions, 9.4.6
      • criminal proceedings, 9.4.6.2
      • family law exceptions, 9.4.6.3
      • in rem orders, 9.4.6.5.2
      • non-avoidable transfers, 9.4.6.7
      • other exceptions, 9.4.6.9
      • repeat filers, 9.4.6.5
      • residential tenant evictions, 9.4.6.6
      • retirement fund loan repayments, 9.4.6.4
      • tax refund intercepts, 9.4.6.8
    • generally, 9.1
    • lender bankruptcies, 18.9.2
    • notice to creditors
      • effective notice, 9.6.3.3
      • giving notice, 8.3.1, 9.5, 9.6.3.1
      • requirements of notice, 9.6.3.2
    • personal property leases, 12.9.5.2
    • purpose, 9.2
    • reinstitution, 9.4.7
    • relief from the stay
      • appeals from, 9.7.3.3.3
      • burden of proof, 9.7.3.1.4
      • chapter 12, 17.4.4.3
      • chapter 13, 8.7.5
      • commencement by motion, 9.7.1
      • consumers as creditors, 18.3.2/-/18.3.4, 18.9.2
      • counterclaims and defenses, 9.7.3.1.3
      • discovery, 9.7.3.1.2
      • grounds for relief, 9.7.3.2, 12.8.2.2.3
      • lender bankruptcies, 18.9.2
      • loss mitigation programs, 9.7.2
      • modification, 9.7.3.3.2
      • in rem orders, 9.4.6.5.2
      • parties, 9.7.3.1.1
      • prior bankruptcy proceedings, effect, 9.4.6.5, 9.7.3.1.5
      • standing, 9.7.3.1.1
      • tactics, 9.7.3.3
      • time limits, 9.7.2
      • unassumed leases, 12.9.4
    • repetitive filings, effect, 9.4.6.5, 9.7.3.1.5
      • chapter 12, 17.4.4.3
      • timing considerations, 6.5.3.7
    • scope
      • codebtors, 9.4.5, 17.4.4.2
      • debtor's actions, 9.4.2, 14.4.2
      • debtor's property, 9.4.3
      • exceptions, 9.4.6
      • legal proceedings, 9.4.2, 9.4.6.2
      • non-automatic stays, 9.4.7
      • other prohibitions, 9.4.4
    • sovereign immunity, effect, 9.6.6
    • tax intercepts, 9.4.4
    • termination, order confirming, 9.3.3.4
    • utility services, 9.8
    • violations
      • contempt remedies, 9.6.4
      • damages, 8.3.1, 9.6.2
      • effect, 9.6.1
      • governmental units, 9.6.6
      • jurisdiction, 9.6.5
      • notice issues, 9.6.3
      • procedural issues, 9.6.7
      • UDAP violation, as, 9.6.5
  • AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
    • adequate protection, 9.9.3
    • application, 9.9, 9.9.1
    • chapter 7, 3.3
    • chapter 13, 4.3
    • general rule, 9.9.1
    • notice to property-holders, 8.3.1
    • possession after turnover, 9.9.4
    • procedure, 9.9.3
    • secured parties in possession, scope, 9.9.2
  • AUTOMOBILE TITLE PAWNS
    • bankruptcy, effect, 11.9
  • AUTOMOBILES
    • see MOTOR VEHICLES
  • AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
    • see also POSTPETITION TRANSFERS; PREBANKRUPTCY TRANSFERS
    • chapter 12, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5
    • chapter 13 plans, 11.7
    • divorce-related liens, 10.4.2.3.1, 10.4.2.3.2
    • exempt property, 3.5.1, 8.3.6, 10.4.2
    • foreclosure sales, 10.4.2.6.5
    • fraudulent transfers
      • chapter 11, 18.7.6
      • chapter 12, 17.4.3.5.2
      • generally, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
    • joint property, 10.4.2.3.3
    • liens, 10.4.2
      • exempt property, 8.3.6, 10.4.2.1, 10.4.2.2, 10.4.2.3
      • family farmers, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5.1, 17.4.3.5.4
      • joint property, 10.4.2.3.3
      • judicial liens, 10.4.2.3, 10.4.2.10, 17.4.3.3
      • non-purchase money security interests, 10.4.2.4
      • pre-Code liens, 10.4.2.10
      • preservation, 10.4.2.9
      • statement of intention, 7.3.11
      • trustee's powers, 10.4.2.6
    • non-avoidable transfers, automatic stay, application, 9.4.6.7
    • powers of debtor, 10.4.2
    • preferences
      • chapter 11, 18.7.6
      • debtor use of powers, 10.4.2.6.4.3
      • exceptions to avoidance, 10.4.2.6.4.2
      • family farmers, 17.4.3.5.3
      • generally, 10.4.2.6.4.1
      • prebankruptcy, 6.5.2.1, 6.5.3.2
    • preservation of property, 10.4.2.9
    • procedures, 8.3.6, 10.4.2.2
    • property recovered by trustee, 10.4.2.5
    • recovery of property after, 10.4.2.8
    • trustee's powers, 10.4.2.6, 10.4.2.7
  • BAD FAITH
    • see also GOOD FAITH TEST
    • attorney fee awards re, 16.5.6
    • conversion of proceedings, 13.7.1, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
    • dismissal of case, 13.4.7.1, 13.4.7.4
    • relief from stay, 9.7.3.2.1
  • BANK ACCOUNTS
    • freezes on, 9.4.4, 11.3.5
    • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
    • statements, source of information, 5.3.4
  • BANKRUPTCY
    • advantages, see ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BANKRUPTCY
    • alternatives, 6.2.2.8.2
    • auto pawn transactions and, 11.9
    • business bankruptcies, see BUSINESS BANKRUPTCIES
    • case
      • definition, 1.4.2
      • venue, 3.2.3
    • case law, see CASE LAW
    • chapter 7, see CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS
    • chapter 11, see CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS
    • chapter 12, see CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
    • chapter 13, see CHAPTER 13 REORGANIZATIONS
    • common questions, client handout, Appx. K.2
    • consumers as creditors, see CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
    • counseling the debtor, 6.1, Appx. K
      • see also COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR
    • debt relief agency provisions, 16.8
    • defined, 2.1
    • disadvantages, see ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BANKRUPTCY
    • discharges, see DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
    • discrimination regarding, 6.2.2.4, 15.5.4, 15.5.5
    • dismissal, see DISMISSAL OF CASE
    • documents, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • emergency situations, 7.2.2
    • farmers, see FARMERS
    • federal code, see BANKRUPTCY CODE
    • federal rules, see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • filing, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
    • forms, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS; OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • governing law, 1.4
    • health care businesses, 18.10
    • involuntary, see INVOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCIES
    • ipso facto default, see BANKRUPTCY CLAUSES
    • jurisdiction, 2.4.2, 14.2
    • landlords, 18.3.4, 18.8
    • lenders, 18.9
    • liquidations, see CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS; CHAPTER 11 LIQUIDATIONS
    • local rules, 1.4.2, 1.4.4.2
    • monitoring fees, 14.4.3.4.5
    • NCLC treatise
      • companion website, 1.3.2, 5.1.3, Appx. M
      • focus, 1.2
      • organization, 1.3.2
      • practice guide chapters, 5.1.1
      • purpose, 1.3.1
      • use of materials, 5.1.3
      • using as research tool, 1.3.4
      • web-based text searching, 1.3.3, Appx. M.6
    • necessity, weighing, 6.2.2.7
    • neglected remedy, 1.1.3
    • no-asset cases, defined, 3.1
    • overview, 1.1.1
    • papers, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS; OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • petitions, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
    • practice aids, see PRACTICE AIDS
    • proceedings, see BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
    • property administered, see BANKRUPTCY ESTATE
    • purposes, 2.3
    • questionnaire, 5.3.2, Appx. F
    • recoupment claims, 14.3.2.4
    • related statutes, text, Appx. A
    • relief available, 2.2
    • remedial value, 1.1
    • rent-to-own transactions and, 11.8
    • reorganizations, see CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS; CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN); CHAPTER 13 REORGANIZATIONS
    • reporting services, 1.5.4
    • research aids, see RESEARCH AIDS
    • rules, see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • straight bankruptcies, see CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS
    • title pawn transactions and, 11.9
    • treatises and texts, 1.5.3
    • trustees in bankruptcy, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
    • U.S. trustee, see UNITED STATES TRUSTEE PROGRAM
    • using remedy, 1.1.4
    • voluntary, see VOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCIES
    • wrong tool situations, 6.2.2.8.1
  • BANKRUPTCY ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT OF 2005
    • see also BANKRUPTCY CODE
    • changes enacted, 1.1.2.5
    • legislative history, 1.5.1.5
    • poor drafting, 1.1.2.5
    • selected provisions, Appx. A.4.9
  • BANKRUPTCY APPELLATE PANEL (BAP)
    • see also APPEALS; BANKRUPTCY COURT
    • appeals from, 2.4.3, 14.9.3
    • appeals to, 2.4.3, 14.9.1
    • establishment, 1.1.2.4, 14.9.1
  • BANKRUPTCY ASSISTANCE SERVICES
    • see ATTORNEYS; BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS; DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
  • BANKRUPTCY CLAUSES
    • validity, 8.8.2, 11.5.4, 15.5.3
  • BANKRUPTCY CODE
    • see also BANKRUPTCY; FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • amendments to
      • 1978 Bankruptcy Reform Act, 1.1.2.1, 1.5.1.1, Appx. A.4.1
      • 1984 consumer amendments, 1.1.2.2, 1.5.1.2, Appx. A.4.2
      • 1986 changes, 1.1.2.3, 1.5.1.3, Appx. A.4.3
      • 1994 Bankruptcy Reform Act, 1.1.2.4, 1.5.1.4, Appx. A.4.6
      • 2005 amendments, 1.1.2.5, 1.5.1.5, 9.6.3.2, 17.1.1.1, Appx. A.4.9
      • chapter 12 enactment, 17.1.1.1
      • other amendments, 1.1.2.6
      • pending legislation, 1.4.4.1
    • case law, 1.4.4.3
    • debt relief agency provisions, 16.8
    • definitions, 1.4.1
    • exemption provisions, importance, 10.1.1
    • legislative history, 1.5.1
    • National Bankruptcy Review Commission, 1.1.2.4
    • rules of construction, 1.4.1
    • structure, 1.4.1
    • text, Appx. A.1
    • transitional provisions, Appx. A.4.1/-/Appx. A.4.3
  • BANKRUPTCY COURT
    • see also BANKRUPTCY APPELLATE PANEL (BAP); BANKRUPTCY JUDGES
    • abstention
      • discretionary, 14.5.3
      • mandatory, 14.5.2
      • right to, 14.5.1
    • advantages
      • fairer results, 14.3.1
      • federal court access, 14.3.2.3
      • sovereign immunity waiver, 14.3.2.2
      • venue, 14.3.2.1
    • appeals, 2.4.3, 14.9
      • bankruptcy appellate panel, 2.4.3, 14.9.1
      • direct appeal to court of appeals, 14.9.2
      • district court, 14.9.1
    • attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
    • bringing matter before
      • claims by debtor, 14.4.2, 14.4.4
      • example, 14.4.4
      • habeas corpus, 14.4.5, 15.5.5.7
      • objections to claims, 14.4.3.1
      • removal to, 14.4.1, 14.4.4
    • case docket listing, 2.4.1
    • case law, binding effect, 1.4.4.3
    • claims docket listing, 2.4.1
    • class actions, 14.7
    • contempt of court, 14.2.8
    • discharge protections, enforcement, 15.5.5.7
    • dischargeability determinations, 15.4.2, 15.4.4
    • dismissal of cases
      • involuntary dismissal, 13.3, 13.4
      • voluntary dismissal, 13.2
    • dockets, access, 2.4.1
    • filing fees, see FILING FEES
    • final orders, 14.9.4
    • generally, 14.1
    • in forma pauperis litigation, 14.6, 18.6.2
    • in personam jurisdiction, 14.3.2.1
    • involuntary cases, 14.8
    • jurisdiction, 2.4.2, 9.6.5, 14.2, 15.5.5.7
    • jury trials, 14.2.7
    • loss mitigation programs, 9.7.2
    • notice by clerk of available relief, 7.3.6
    • reaffirmation agreements, approval, 15.5.2.4, 15.5.2.6
    • records, 2.4.1
    • related provisions, Appx. A.2
    • removal to, 14.4.1
      • generally, 14.4.1.1
      • procedure after removal, 14.4.1.3
      • procedure for removal, 14.4.1.2
      • remand of removed actions, 14.4.1.4
    • reporting services, 1.5.4
    • rules of procedure, see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • status, 2.4.1
    • supervision and review of fees, 16.3.3
    • tax returns, filing with, 8.3.4.2
    • venue, 14.3.2.1
  • BANKRUPTCY ESTATE
    • see also PROPERTY
    • attorney fees, payments from, 16.2.3, 16.4.2
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
    • chapter 12 reorganizations
      • composition, 17.4.2
      • possession, 17.4.2
      • vesting in debtor, 17.5.9
    • chapter 13 plans
      • possession, 12.8.1
      • vesting in debtor, 12.8.5
    • contents
      • education savings accounts, 2.5.3
      • generally, 2.5.1
      • pawned personal property, 2.5.4
      • pensions and spendthrift trusts, 2.5.2
      • tax refunds and credits, 2.5.5
    • defined, 2.5.1
    • exempt property, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
    • money orders, exclusion, 18.5.2.1
    • nonexempt property, retention, 8.3.11
    • postpetition property, inclusion, 8.2
    • potential claims, property of, 14.3.2.6.2
    • security deposits, status, 18.8.5
    • substantive consolidation of cases, 6.4
  • BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • additional time to file, 7.3.13.5
    • amending, 7.1.1, 8.3.2
    • attorneys, duties, 16.7
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, 7.3.1, 7.3.13.2, 7.4
    • chapter 7, 3.2.2
    • chapter 12, 17.2.3
    • chapter 13, 4.2.2
      • discharge, 8.8.1
    • commercial forms, 7.1.2
    • completing, 1.3.2, 7.3.1
    • computer software, 5.1.3, 7.1.3, Appx. D.1.2
    • credit counseling certificate, 7.2.1, 7.3.5
    • current monthly income statement, 7.3.9
    • deficiencies, 13.3.1, 13.3.2
    • disclosure of fees, 7.3.13.2
    • electronic filing, 7.1.4
    • emergency bankruptcies, 7.2.2
    • filing, 7.2.1
      • electronic filing, 7.1.4, Appx. D.1.4
    • filing deadlines, see TIME LIMITS
    • filing fees, see FILING FEES
    • financial affairs, see STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
    • format, 7.3.1
    • general principles, 7.1.1
    • intentions, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
    • list of creditors, codebtors, executory contracts, 7.3.4
    • local rules or practice, 7.3.13.6
    • non-attorney preparers, see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
    • non-official forms, 7.3.1
    • obtaining forms, 1.4.3, 7.1.2
    • official forms, see OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • other forms, 7.3.13, Appx. E
    • notice of available relief, 7.3.6
    • personal financial management course certificate, 8.3.3
    • petition, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
    • preprinted forms, 1.3.2, 1.4.3, 7.1.2
    • sample completed forms, Appx. D.2
    • sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G
      • NCLC companion website, 1.3.2, 5.1.3, Appx. M
    • schedules, see SCHEDULES
    • signing and verification, 7.4, 16.7.1
      • attorney certification, 16.7.2.3
    • Social Security number, see STATEMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER
    • standardized forms, 7.3.1
    • statistical summary of certain liabilities, 7.3.7.8
    • substantial compliance with official forms, 1.4.3, 7.3.1
      • computer programs, 7.1.3, Appx. D.1.2
      • permitted alterations, Appx. D.1.3
      • precise compliance not necessary, 7.3.1
    • summary of schedules, 7.3.7.8
    • unofficial forms, 7.3.1
  • BANKRUPTCY JUDGES
    • see also BANKRUPTCY COURT
    • additional 1986 judgeships, 1.1.2.3
    • contempt powers, 14.2.8
    • expertise, 14.3.1
    • jury trials, conducting, 14.2.7
    • related provisions, Appx. A.2, Appx. A.4.2, Appx. A.4.3
  • BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
    • see also DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES; NON-ATTORNEYS
    • actions against, 16.6
    • advertisements, 16.6, 16.8.5
    • assistance from, 16.6
    • defined, 16.6
    • disclosure requirements, 16.8.3.4
      • compensation disclosure, 7.3.13.2, Appx. E.9
    • fees, 7.3.13.2, 16.3.3, 16.6
    • generally, 16.6
    • information requirements, 7.3.13.2, 7.4, 16.6
      • forms include space for, 7.3.1, 16.6
    • Official Forms
      • declaration and signature, Form 19A, Appx. D.3
      • notice to debtors, Form 19B, Appx. D.3
    • notice to debtor, 16.6, Appx. D.3
    • regulation as debt relief agency, 16.6, 16.8.1.1
      • disclosure requirements, 16.8.3.4
      • failure to comply, 16.8.6
    • regulation under s. 110, 16.6
    • restrictions on, 16.6, 16.8.2
    • signing of documents, 7.4
    • statement about bankruptcy assistance services, 16.8.3.3
    • unauthorized practice of law, 16.6
    • written contract requirement, 16.8.4
  • BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • advice to clients after filing, 8.2
    • amendments to initial papers, 8.3.2
    • annotated and completed forms, Appx. D.2
    • audits, 8.3.15.1
    • chapter 7
      • declaration of attorney, 7.3.2
      • declaration of understanding, 7.3.2, 7.3.6
      • eligibility, 3.2.1
      • filing, effect, 3.3
      • filing, forms and fees, 3.2.2, 7.2.1
    • chapter 13
      • filing, effect, 4.3
      • filing, forms and fees, 4.2.2, 7.2.1
      • filing when discharge unavailable, 12.10.3
      • postpetition claims, 4.6, 8.7.2
    • electronic filing, 7.1.4, Appx. D.1.4
    • filing costs
      • see also FILING FEES
      • amendments, 8.3.2
      • chapter 7, 3.2.2, 14.6.2.1
      • chapter 13, 4.2.2
      • generally, 6.2.2.6, 7.2.1
      • installment payments, 7.3.13.3
      • joint filings, 6.4
      • waiver, 14.6
    • format, 7.1.2, 7.3.2
    • forms, 7.2.1
      • Official Form 1, 7.3.2, Appx. D.2
      • sample forms, Appx. D.2
    • good faith filing, 9.3.3.2.2, 9.3.3.2.3
    • involuntary, 14.8, 17.1.2
    • joint filings, 6.4, 7.3.7.3, 7.3.7.6, 7.3.8, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.2.1
    • national database, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
    • non-attorney preparers, see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
    • notice by clerk prior to filing, 7.3.6
    • PACER system, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
    • preparing, 7.3.2
    • prior filings
      • effect on eligibility, 3.2.1.2, 12.10
      • information on, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
    • signing, 7.4, 16.7.1
      • attorney certification, 16.7.2.3
    • successive filings, 3.2.1.2, 4.2.1.4, 6.2.2.8.2, 12.10
      • effect on automatic stay, 9.4.6.5, 9.7.3.1.5, 17.4.4.3
    • timing considerations, 6.5
    • venue, 3.2.3
  • BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
    • see also CORE PROCEEDINGS; NON-CORE PROCEEDINGS
    • abstention, 14.5
    • adversary proceedings
      • caption, Appx. D.3
      • cover sheet, Appx. E.5
      • described, 14.2.4.1
      • rules, 1.4.2
      • subpoena, Appx. E.7.2
      • summons, Appx. E.6
    • applications, 14.2.4.1
    • case, distinction, 1.4.2
    • categories, 1.4.2, 14.2.4
    • contested matters, 14.2.4.1
      • rules, 1.4.2
    • conversion of proceedings, see CONVERSION OF PROCEEDINGS
    • defined, 1.4.2, 14.2.4.1
    • disputes that arise
      • generally, 8.3.10
      • resolving, 3.4, 4.4
    • forms, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • in forma pauperis, 14.6
      • bankruptcy court, powers, 14.6.2
      • generally, 14.6.1
    • jurisdiction, 14.2.4, 14.2.5
    • notice requirements, 9.6.3.2, 14.3.2.1
    • prior proceedings, information on, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
    • rules, see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • sample pleadings, Appx. G
    • service requirements, 14.3.2.1
    • withdrawal to district court, 14.2.5
    • venue, 3.2.3, 14.3.2.1
  • BANKRUPTCY REFORM ACT OF 1994
    • see also BANKRUPTCY CODE
    • changes enacted, 1.1.2.4
    • legislative history, 1.5.1.4
    • National Bankruptcy Review Commission, 1.1.2.4
    • selected provisions, Appx. A.4.6
  • BANKRUPTCY RULES
    • see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
  • BAPS
    • see BANKRUPTCY APPELLATE PANEL (BAP)
  • BENEFICIARIES
    • see also TRUSTS
    • chapter 7 filings, 3.2.1.1
  • BENEFITS REPLACING WAGES
    • see also PUBLIC BENEFITS; SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
    • wage orders, attachment, 12.6.1
  • BOOKS
    • see RECORDS
  • BUDGET COUNSELING
    • see CREDIT COUNSELING
  • BURDEN OF PROOF
    • allowed secured claims
      • fees and charges, 11.6.1.3.3.5
      • present value interest, 11.6.1.3.3.6
    • attorney fees, 15.4.3.2.4
    • collateral estoppel, 15.4.4
    • dischargeability proceedings, 15.4.3.2.4
      • domestic support obligations, 15.4.3.5.3
      • false financial statements, 15.4.3.2.2.1
      • false pretenses or fraud, 15.4.3.2.3.1
      • no intent to pay, 15.4.3.2.3.2
      • student loans, 15.4.3.8.3
    • HEAL debts, dischargeability, 15.4.3.8.6
    • proof of claim, 11.2.2.3.2, 14.4.3.3
  • BUSINESS BANKRUPTCIES
    • see also CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS; CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
    • employees, representing, 18.7.12
      • see also EMPLOYER BANKRUPTCY
    • health care businesses, 18.10
    • landlords, see LANDLORD BANKRUPTCIES
    • lenders, see LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
    • privacy protections, 18.10
    • small businesses, see SMALL BUSINESS BANKRUPTCIES
  • CAPITAL GAINS
    • foreclosure sales, liability, 11.3.4
    • income treatment, 13.4.3.2.5
  • CASE LAW
    • see also RESEARCH AIDS
    • citator, 1.5.6
    • computer-assisted research, 1.5.7
    • NCLC consulting service, 1.3.4.2
    • NCLC treatise, 1.3.4.1
    • overview, 1.4.4.3
    • reporting services, 1.5.4
  • CASH COLLATERAL
    • see also COLLATERAL
    • family farmer reorganizations
      • adequate protection, 17.4.11
      • special provisions, 17.5.9
      • use, generally, 17.4.8
    • holding by creditors, 11.3.5
  • CAUSES OF ACTION
    • see also ACTIONS; CLAIMS BY DEBTORS
    • prepetition causes of action
      • consumer protection statutes, 16.5.3
      • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
      • standing, 14.3.2.6.2
      • unlisted, judicial estoppel, 14.3.2.6.3
  • CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY
    • abandonment of property, 3.5.1, 8.3.11, 11.3.3
    • abuse of provisions, see ABUSE OF CHAPTER 7
    • addition of creditors, 8.5
    • amendments to statement or schedules, 8.3.2
    • attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
    • audits of debtor, 8.3.15.1
    • automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
    • claims filed by creditors, 3.3, 3.5.3, 8.4.6
    • claims filed by debtor on behalf of creditor, 8.4.6
    • considerations favoring, 6.3.2
    • consumers as creditors, 18.2.2, 18.5.4.2, 18.8.2
    • conversion
      • bad faith, 13.7.1, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
      • chapter 11, from, 17.1.2
      • chapter 11, to, 18.7.11
      • chapter 12, from, 17.1.2, 17.4.6.3, 17.4.6.4
      • chapter 12, to, 17.2.4
      • chapter 13, from, 4.2.3, 4.7.4, 8.7.5.4, 13.3.1, 13.7.2, 17.1.2
      • chapter 13, to, 4.2.3, 13.7.1
      • exempt property, effect, 10.1.2
    • credit counseling prerequisite, 3.2.1.1, 3.2.1.4
    • dischargeability complaints, 3.3
    • discharges, see DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
    • dismissal, see DISMISSAL OF CASE
    • distribution to creditors, order, 3.5.4
    • eligibility, 3.2.1
    • farmers, involuntary, 17.1.2
    • filing deadlines, see TIME LIMITS
    • filing requirements, 3.2.2, 7.2.1
    • financial management course requirement, 8.3.3, 15.2.2.11
    • first steps, 3.3
    • forms, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS; OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • interim trustee, appointment, 3.3
    • involuntary, 17.1.2
    • landlords, 18.8.2
    • liquidation of estate, 3.5.2
    • meeting of creditors, see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
    • nominal asset cases, 3.5.1, 8.3.11
    • non-recourse loans, stripdown, 11.2.1.2
    • objections, filing, 3.3
    • overview, 2.2, 3.1
    • personal property leases, assumption or rejection, 8.3.7.2, 12.9.5
    • petition, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
    • procedures after meeting of creditors, 3.5, 8.5
    • retaining nonexempt property, 8.3.11
    • right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
    • sale of assets, 18.9.3
    • statement of intention, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
    • student loans, dischargeability, 15.4.3.8.5
    • successive filings, 3.2.1.2, 6.2.2.8.2, 15.2.2.8, 15.2.2.9
    • tenant ownership, 18.8.3
    • tenants, maintaining services, 18.8.2
    • timing considerations
      • anticipation of further debt, 6.5.3.1
      • means test calculations, 6.5.3.6
      • prebankruptcy transfers, 6.5.2.1
      • presumption of abuse, 6.5.3.6
    • trustee, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
  • CHAPTER 11 LIQUIDATIONS
    • see also CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS
    • code provision for, 18.7.1
    • imposing conditions, 18.7.12.3.4
    • involuntary, 17.1.2
    • lender bankruptcies, 18.9.3
    • opposing, 18.7.12.3.3
    • sale of assets, 18.9.3
  • CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY
    • appointment of counsel, requirement, 17.2.3.2
    • classification of creditors, 18.7.2.1
    • compensation to debtor's principal, objections, 18.7.5
    • consumers as creditors, 18.2.2, 18.5.4.2, 18.7.12, 18.8.4, 18.9
    • conversion from chapter 12, 17.4.6.3
    • conversion to chapter 7, 18.7.11
      • farmers, 17.1.2
    • conversion to chapter 12, 17.2.4
    • creditors' committee, 18.7.2.2, 18.7.3
    • creditors' rights, 18.7.2.1, 18.7.2.2, 18.7.9
    • disclosure statement, objections, 18.7.7
    • dismissal, 18.7.11
    • employees, representing, 18.7.12
    • examiner, appointment, 18.7.4.6, 18.7.4.7
    • farmers, use by, 17.1.3.1
      • problems with, 17.1.3.3
    • generally, 18.7.1
    • industrial stakeholders, representing, 18.7.12
    • lender bankruptcies, 18.9.1
    • notice to creditors, 18.4.1
    • plan of reorganization
      • creditor plan, 18.7.9
      • filing, time, 18.7.9
      • objections to, 18.7.8
      • third party releases, 18.9.5
      • voting by creditors, 18.7.2.1
    • procedures, 2.2
    • recharacterization of claims, 18.5.6
    • sale of assets, see CHAPTER 11 LIQUIDATIONS
    • small business reorganizations, 18.7.10
    • successive filings, restrictions, 15.2.2.8
    • successor releases and injunctions, 18.9.5
    • tenants, preventing eviction, 18.8.4
    • third party releases and injunctions, 18.9.5
    • transfer avoidance actions, 18.7.6
    • trustee appointment
      • cause, grounds, 18.7.4.3, 18.7.4.5
      • equitable considerations, 18.7.4.4
      • general standards, 18.7.4.2
      • introduction, 18.7.4.1
      • practice and procedure, 18.7.4.7
    • U.S. trustee, role, 18.7.2.3
    • use by consumer debtors, 6.3.4
  • CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
    • see also CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
    • adequate protection, 17.4.11
    • allowed secured claims, treatment, 17.5.4
      • amortization, 17.5.4.2
      • interest rates, 17.5.4.3
      • reduction, 17.5.4.4
      • valuation, 17.5.3
    • classification of claims
      • codebtors, 17.5.6.2
      • direct payments, 17.5.7.3
      • generally, 17.5.6.1
      • secured creditors, 17.5.6.4
      • unsecured creditors, 17.5.6.3
    • collateral, substitution, 17.5.4.6
    • confirmation
      • denial, 17.6
      • postconfirmation issues, 17.8.1
      • reservation of issues, 17.5.9
      • revocation, 17.8.3
      • time frame, 17.5.2
    • default cure, 17.5.4.2
    • disposable income commitment, 17.5.4.2, 17.5.5.3
    • domestic support obligations, 17.5.8
    • feasibility requirement, 17.5.7.2
      • determination, 17.5.7.2.2
      • generally, 17.5.7.2.1
    • good faith test, 17.5.7.1
    • liquidation test, 17.5.5.2
    • modification
      • generally, time, 17.5.2
      • postconfirmation, 17.5.5.3, 17.8.1
    • other provisions, suggestions, 17.5.9
    • payments
      • deferral, 17.5.9
      • direct payments, 17.5.7.3, 17.5.9
      • extensions beyond plan life, 17.5.4.2
      • trustee, through, 17.4.1.2.1, 17.5.7.3
    • postpetition indebtedness, 17.8.2
      • tax liabilities, 17.5.5.4
    • priority unsecured creditors, 17.5.5.4
    • proposal, 17.5.2
    • replacement liens, 17.5.4.6
    • setoffs, provision for, 17.4.12
    • special provisions, 17.5.9
    • surrender of property, 17.5.4.4
    • tax claims, 17.5.5.4
    • time limits, 17.5.2
    • trustee compensation, 17.4.1.2
    • unsecured claims, treatment, 17.5.5
  • CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
    • see also BANKRUPTCY; FARMERS; FISHERMEN
    • adequate protection concept, 17.4.11
    • advantages over chapter 11, 17.1.3.3
    • advantages over chapter 13, 17.1.3.2
    • appointment of counsel, requirement, 17.2.3.2
    • attorney fees, disclosure, 17.2.3.3
    • automatic stay, application, 17.4.4.1
    • cash collateral, use, see CASH COLLATERAL
    • consumers as creditors, 18.5.4.2
    • conversion from other chapters, 17.2.4
    • conversion to other chapters
      • involuntary, 17.1.2, 17.4.6.4
      • voluntary, 17.4.6.3
    • credit counseling requirement, 17.2.2.1
    • current status, 17.1.1.1
    • DIP, see DEBTOR-IN-POSSESSION (DIP)
    • discharges
      • see also DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
      • discharge issues, 17.4.5, 17.7
      • discharge orders, forms, Appx. E.8.5, Appx. E.8.6
    • dismissal
      • involuntary, 17.4.6.2
      • voluntary, 17.4.6.1
    • eligibility, 17.2.2
      • commercial fishing operation, 17.2.2.3
      • corporations, 17.2.2.4.5
      • debt ceiling, 17.2.2.4.2
      • family farmer, 17.2.2.4
      • family fisherman, 17.2.2.4
      • farming operation, 17.2.2.3
      • generally, 17.2.2.1
      • partnerships, 17.2.2.4.5
      • nature of debt, 17.2.2.4.3
      • nature of income, 17.2.2.4.4
      • regular annual income, 17.2.2.2
    • executory contracts, assumption, 17.4.7
    • evolution of, 17.1.1
    • filing fees, 17.2.3.3
    • historical background, 1.1.2.3, 17.1.1
    • initial documentation, 17.2.3.4
    • liens
      • automatic dissolution, 17.4.3.4
      • avoidance, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5
      • sales free and clear, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
    • meeting of creditors, 17.2.5
    • new financing, approval, 17.4.9
    • other options, problems with use, 17.1.3
    • overview, 17.1
    • periodic reports, 17.2.3.4
    • permanent status, 17.1.1.1
    • plans, see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
    • postpetition dispositions, tax liability, 17.5.5.4
    • procedures, 17.5.2
    • property of the estate, 17.4.2
    • provisions, creation, 1.1.2.3, 1.5.1.3
    • purpose, 17.1.1.2
    • recapture of property, 17.4.3.5
    • redemption rights, 17.4.3.5.5
    • related provisions, Appx. A.4.3
    • right to cure, 17.4.3.5.5
    • schedules, 17.2.3.1
    • secured creditors, treatment, 17.5.4
      • valuation of claims, 17.5.3
    • supplemental information, 17.2.3.4
    • tax claims, 17.5.5.4
    • timing, 17.1.5, 17.5.2
    • trustee, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
    • unexpired leases, assumption, 17.4.7
    • unsecured creditors, treatment, 17.5.5
  • CHAPTER 13 PLANS
    • see also CHAPTER 13 REORGANIZATIONS
    • ability to pay test, see ABILITY TO PAY TEST
    • adequate protection of property, 12.8.2
    • adequate protection payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
    • administration, 8.7
    • advice to clients, 8.2
    • allowed secured claims, 8.3.12.1, 8.3.12.2, 11.6.1.3, 11.6.2
    • attorney fees, payment through, 7.3.12.3, 16.4
    • binding effect, 12.11
    • classification of claims
      • claims by former chapter 7 trustees, 12.4.5
      • claims with cosigners, 12.4.2
      • generally, 12.4.1
      • others, 12.4.3
      • payments directly to creditors, 12.4.4
      • practical considerations, 12.4.6
    • confirmation
      • application for, 8.6
      • considerations, 4.3, 4.5, 12.7
      • denial, effect, 8.3.12
      • distribution of payments, 8.3.12
      • effect, 4.5
      • hearing, 4.5, 8.6
      • mandatory, 12.7
      • modified plans, 8.6
      • res judicata effect, 9.7.3.2.1, 12.7, 12.11
      • revocation, 4.5
      • standards, 7.3.12.3
      • vesting of property after, 12.8.5
    • debtors below medium income, 12.3.4.4.5
    • disposable income, 12.3.4.4
      • commitment of, 7.3.12.3, 12.3.4.1, 12.3.4.4.6
    • distributions in equal monthly payments, 11.6.1.3.3.2
    • executory contracts, 12.9
      • assumption, 12.9.2
      • rejection, 12.9.3.1, 12.9.3.3
    • failure to complete, 4.7
      • conversion to chapter 7, 4.7.4, 8.7.5.4, 13.7.2
      • dismissal, 4.7.5, 8.7.5.5, 13.6
      • generally, 8.7.5.1
      • hardship discharge, 4.7.2, 8.7.5.3
      • modification, 4.7.3, 8.7.5.2
      • options, 4.7.1
    • feasibility of plan, 12.5
    • filing requirement, 4.2.2, 7.2.1
    • form plans, 7.3.12.2
    • format, 7.3.12
    • formulating the plan, 7.3.12.5
    • generally, 7.3.12
    • hardship discharge, 4.7.2, 8.7.5.3
    • income and expenses, estimating, 7.3.7.6
    • income payments to trustee, 12.6.1
    • interest and penalty payments, 12.6.2
    • landlords, 18.8.2.2
    • late payment charges, 14.4.3.4.4
    • leases, 12.9
      • assumption, 12.9.2
      • rejection, 12.9.3.2
    • length of plan, 12.3.4.4.6
      • maximum, 12.6.3
    • lien retention, 11.6.1.3.3.1
    • liquidation of property under, 12.6.5
    • loan modification
      • involuntary, 11.6.1
      • voluntary, 11.6.1.5
    • long-term debts, 11.6.2, 15.4.1
    • modification
      • change in circumstances, 12.3.4.5
      • confirmation hearing, 8.6
      • generally, 4.7.3, 8.7.4, 12.11
      • inability to complete plan, 8.7.5.2
      • objections, 4.6
      • postpetition transactions, 4.6, 8.7.2
      • time, 4.6, 12.3.4.5
    • mortgage refinancings, 12.6.6
    • objections, grounds, 4.4, 8.6, 12.3.4.2
    • payments
      • adequate protection payments, 8.3.12.2, 11.6.1.3.3.2, 12.8.2.2
      • automatic increases, 12.3.4.5
      • commencement, time, 4.3, 8.3.12.1
      • crediting mistakes, 14.4.3.4.4, 14.4.3.4.8, 15.5.1.4
      • directly to creditors, 11.6.2.6, 12.4.4, 12.4.6
      • disposable income, effect, 12.3.4.1
      • graduated payments, 8.3.12.3
      • modification, 12.3.4.5
      • outside plan, 11.6.2.6, 12.4.4, 12.4.6
      • personal property leases, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
      • postpetition support obligations, 12.3.6.3
      • present value, 11.6.1.3.3.1
      • priority creditors, 12.3.6
      • schedules, 7.3.12
      • tracking, 2.6, 8.7.1
      • trustee, payment through, 8.7.1
      • wage deductions, 8.3.12
    • percentage plans, 7.3.12.5
    • permissible provisions, 7.3.12.4
    • possession of property, 12.8.1
    • postpetition transactions, 4.6
      • claims, 8.7.2
      • mortgage payments, 8.7.3
    • pot plans, 7.3.12.5
    • priority claims, 12.3.6
    • requirements, 7.3.12.3, 12.7
    • signing, 7.4
    • standards, 7.3.12.3, 11.6.1.3, 12.3/-/12.7
    • student loans, 15.4.3.8.3
    • summarization, filing, 7.2.1
    • tax claims, 7.3.7.3.3, 12.3.6.1
    • trustee's charges, adjustments, 12.6.4
    • trustee's duties, 2.6
    • undersecured claims, 11.7
    • unexpired leases, 12.9
      • assumption, 12.9.2
      • rejection, 12.9.3.2
    • unsecured creditors, 12.3
      • ability to pay test, 12.3.4
      • best interests test, 12.3.2
      • good faith test, 12.3.3, 12.3.5
      • priority creditors, 12.3.6
    • use of property, 12.8.1
    • zero payment plans, 12.3.4.1
  • CHAPTER 13 REORGANIZATIONS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY
    • adequate protection payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
    • administrative expenses, 12.3.4.4.4, 12.3.6.1
      • means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.7
    • amendments to statement or schedules, 8.3.2
    • attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
    • audits of debtor, 8.3.15.1
    • automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
    • claims filed by creditors, 4.3, 4.4, 8.4.6
    • claims filed by debtor on behalf of creditor, 8.4.6
    • commencement of case, 4.2
    • considerations favoring, 6.2.2.8.2, 6.3.3
    • consumers as creditors
      • evictions, preventing, 18.8.4
      • generally, 18.5.4.3
    • conversion
      • bad faith, 13.7.1, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
      • chapter 7, from, 4.2.3, 13.7.1
      • chapter 7, to, 4.2.3, 4.7.4, 8.7.5.4, 13.3.1, 13.7.2, 17.1.2
      • chapter 12, to, 17.2.4
      • exempt property, effect, 10.1.2
    • cramdown, 11.6
    • credit counseling prerequisite, 4.2.1.1
    • discharges, see DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
    • dismissal, see DISMISSAL OF CASE
    • domestic support obligations
      • certification, 4.8, 8.8.1, Appx. E.14
      • classification, 12.3.6.1, 12.4.3
      • postpetition, 12.3.6.3
    • eligibility, 4.2.1
      • debt limitations, 4.2.1.3, 12.2.3
      • generally, 4.2.1.1, 12.2.1
      • partners, 12.2.2
      • regular income, 4.2.1.2, 12.2.2
    • farmers, use by, 17.1.3.1
      • problems with, 17.1.3.2
    • filing deadlines, see TIME LIMITS
    • filing requirements, 4.2.2
    • first steps, 4.3
    • forms, see BANKRUPTCY FORMS; OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • good faith use, 12.3.3, 12.3.5
    • issues, generally, 12.1
    • joint cases, 4.2.1.2
    • liens, voiding, 11.7
    • long-term debts, right to cure, 11.6.2, 15.4.1
    • meeting of creditors, see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
    • overview, 4.1
    • personal financial management course requirement, 8.3.3
    • personal property lease payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
    • petition, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
    • plans, see CHAPTER 13 PLANS
    • postpetition claims, 4.6, 4.7.4, 8.7.2
    • postpetition support obligations must be met, 12.3.6.3
    • preconfirmation activities, 4.4
    • prior bankruptcies, effect, 12.10
    • reasons for filing, 6.3.3
    • secured creditors
      • adequate protection, 8.3.12.2, 11.6.1.3.3.2, 12.8.2.2
      • debtor's right to cure, 11.6.2
      • modification of rights, 11.6.1
      • principal residences, 11.6.1.2
      • purchase money security interests, 11.6.1.4
      • standards under plan, 11.6.1.3
    • statement of income and expenses, annual filings, 8.3.5
    • statement of intention, necessity, 7.3.11
    • student loan issues, 12.4.3, 15.4.3.8.5
    • successive filings, restrictions, 4.2.1.4, 6.2.2.8.2, 15.2.2.9
    • tax return filing, prerequisite, 8.3.14, 12.3.6.2
    • timing considerations
      • disposable income, 6.5.3.6
      • purchase money security interests, 6.5.3.5
      • tax debts, 6.5.3.4
    • trustee, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
  • CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS
    • avoidance status, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
    • defined, 10.4.2.6.5
    • donations after bankruptcy, 1.1.2.6, 12.3.4.4.5
    • means test deduction, 12.3.4.4.5, 13.4.5.3.9
    • protection for donations, 1.1.2.6, 10.4.2.6.5
    • reasonable expenses, 5.3.3.4, 12.3.4.4.5
  • CHECKS
    • transfer date, 10.4.2.6.6
  • CHILD SUPPORT
    • see DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
  • CHILDREN
    • see MINORS
  • CIVIL PROCEEDINGS
    • see also ACTIONS; LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
    • damages or restitution, dischargeability, 15.4.3.6
    • delay of discharge pending, 10.2.3.4.5.6, 15.2.2.12
  • CIVIL RIGHTS AWARDS
    • attorney fees, bankruptcy, application, 16.5.2
  • CLAIMS BY CREDITORS
    • see also CREDITORS
    • allowed secured claims, see ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS
    • baseless, 14.4.3.3
    • claim, defined, 15.5.1.1, 18.4.1
    • classification
      • chapter 12, 17.5.6
      • chapter 13, 12.4
    • consumers as creditors, 18.4
    • debt buyers, 14.4.3.5
    • discharge, effect on, 15.5.1
    • disputes, resolving, 3.4, 4.4
    • equitable subordination, 18.5.4
    • escrow overcharges, 14.4.3.4.2
    • filing by debtor, 8.4.6
      • chapter 13, 4.4
    • government claims, see GOVERNMENT CLAIMS
    • inadequate documentation, 14.4.3.5
    • interest overcharges, 14.4.3.4.3
    • late charge abuses, 14.4.3.4.4
    • late filing, 14.4.3.2
    • monitoring and other fees, 14.4.3.4.5
    • mortgage overcharges, 14.4.3.4
    • no legal or factual basis, 16.5.5.1
    • objections to, 3.5.3, 4.4, 8.3.9, 14.3.2.4, 14.4.3
      • Official Form 20B, Appx. D.3
    • postpetition claims, see POSTPETITION CLAIMS
    • prepetition settlement attempts, effect, 14.4.3.6
    • proof of claim, see PROOF OF CLAIM
    • recharacterization, 18.5.4
    • reconsideration of claims, 14.4.3.7
    • Rule 3001 sanctions, 16.5.5.2
    • Rule 9011 sanctions, 16.5.5.1
    • tax claims, see TAX CLAIMS
  • CLAIMS BY DEBTORS
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.2, 14.4.2
    • prepetition causes of action, 16.5.3
      • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
      • standing, 14.3.2.6.2
      • unlisted, judicial estoppel, 14.3.2.6.3
  • CLASS ACTIONS
    • bankruptcy court, 14.7
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, against, 16.6
    • consumers as creditors, 18.4.2
    • discharge protections, enforcement, 15.5.5.7
  • CLIENT HANDOUTS
    • see also PRACTICE AIDS
    • common bankruptcy questions, Appx. K.2
    • legal rights, Appx. K.3
    • using credit wisely, Appx. K.4
  • CODEBTORS
    • see also SPOUSES
    • automatic stay
      • advantages, 6.2.1.4
      • effect, 9.4.2
      • prior dismissed cases, effect, 9.3.3.5
      • scope, 9.4.5, 17.4.4.2
    • chapter 12 reorganizations
      • automatic stay, application, 17.4.4.2
      • special classification, 17.5.6.2
    • claims with, chapter 13 priority, 12.4.2
    • credit report of bankruptcy, 9.4.5
    • listing
      • filing of list, 7.3.4
      • schedule, Sch. H, 7.3.7.3, 7.3.7.5
  • COLLATERAL
    • see also SECURITY INTERESTS
    • cash collateral, see CASH COLLATERAL
    • chapter 12 reorganizations
      • return to creditor, 17.5.4.4
      • sale payments, 17.5.7.3
      • sales free and clear, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
      • substitutions, 17.5.4.6
    • chapter 13 cramdown, 11.6.1
    • conversion, see CONVERSION OF PROPERTY
    • credit card debts, 5.3.3.3
    • distribution to creditors, 3.5.4
    • finance company loans, 5.3.3.3
    • gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3
    • retention, 11.4.2
    • right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
    • statement of intention, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
    • valuation, see VALUATION
  • COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL
    • dischargeability issues, application, 15.4.4, 18.5.4.2.2
  • COLLECTION AGENCIES
    • automatic stay, notice, effect, 8.3.1, 9.4.4
    • listing as creditor in schedule, 7.3.7.3.4
    • payments to, avoidance as preference, 10.4.2.6.4.3
    • regulation, 6.2.1.1
  • COLLEGE TRANSCRIPTS
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.2
  • COMMERCIAL FISHING OPERATIONS
    • see also FISHERMEN
    • chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2
      • corporations, 17.2.2.4.5
      • debt ceiling, 17.2.2.4.2
      • nature of debt, 17.2.2.4.3
      • nature of income, 17.2.2.4.4
      • partnerships, 17.2.2.4.5
    • defined, 17.2.2.3
  • COMMUNITY PROPERTY
    • see JOINT PROPERTY
  • COMPENSATION PAYMENTS
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.12
  • COMPUTERIZATION
    • see also WEB RESOURCES
    • bankruptcy forms, 5.1.3, 7.1.3, 7.3.1, Appx. D.1.2
    • bankruptcy practice, 7.1.3
    • computer-assisted research, 1.5.7
    • electronic filing, see ELECTRONIC FILING
    • web-based text searches, 1.3.3, Appx. M.6
  • CONDOMINIUM OR COOPERATIVE FEES
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.15, 15.5.1.1
      • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.3.4
    • means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.2
  • CONFIRMATION OF PLAN
    • see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN); CHAPTER 13 PLANS
  • CONSOLIDATION OF CASES
    • joint bankruptcies, differences, 6.4
  • CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS
    • see also TRUSTS
    • existence, determination, 18.5.2.2
  • CONSUMER DEBTORS
    • see DEBTORS
  • CONSUMER DEBTS
    • see also DEBTORS; LIABILITIES
    • anticipation of further debt, 6.5.3.1
    • automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
    • bankruptcy advantages, 6.2.1
    • bankruptcy disadvantages, 6.2.2
    • buyers of debt, claims by, 14.4.3.5
    • chapter 13 limitations, 12.2.3
    • codebtors, see CODEBTORS
    • collateral, see COLLATERAL
    • contingent debts, 7.3.7.3.1, 7.3.7.3.4
    • definition, 11.5.2, 13.4.2
      • debt, defined, 15.5.1.1
    • discharge, see DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
    • dischargeability, see DISCHARGEABILITY
    • intention regarding collateral, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
    • listing in schedules, 7.3.7.3
      • disputed debts, 7.3.7.3, 14.4.3.5
    • long-term debts, see LONG-TERM DEBTS
    • means test deductions
      • priority debts, 13.4.5.3.3
      • secured debts, 13.4.5.3.2
    • medical debts, see MEDICAL DEBTS
    • mutual debts, see MUTUAL DEBTS
    • NCLC Guide to Surviving Debt, 6.1.2
    • nonbankruptcy approaches, 6.2.2.8.2
    • procedures after meeting of creditors, 3.5
    • reaffirmation, see REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENTS
    • repayment plans, avoidance of preferences, 10.4.2.6.4.2
    • resulting from wrongful conduct, homestead exemption cap, 10.2.3.4.5
    • statement of financial affairs, 7.3.8
    • unliquidated debts, 7.3.7.3
  • CONSUMER PRIVACY OMBUDSMAN
    • business bankruptcies, 18.10
  • CONSUMER PROTECTION STATUTES
    • attorney fees, 16.5.3
    • automatic stay issues, 9.7.3.3.2, 18.9.2
  • CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
    • see also CREDITORS
    • automatic stay, 18.3
    • chapter 11 overview, 18.7
    • circumstances, 18.1
    • consumer priority, 18.5.5
    • dischargeability issues, 18.2.1, 18.5.4
    • equitable subordination, 18.5.6
    • in forma pauperis, 18.6
    • increased recovery strategies
      • generally, 18.5.1
      • trust claims, 18.5.2
    • involuntary bankruptcy, forcing, 18.2.2
    • lender bankruptcies, 18.9
    • money orders, 18.5.2.1
    • postpetition claims, 18.5.3
    • prebankruptcy strategy, 18.2
    • preparing for voluntary bankruptcy, 18.2.1
    • proof of claim
      • class claims, 18.4.2
      • individual consumers, 18.4.1
    • Rule 2004 examinations, 18.5.8
    • seeking defendants not in bankruptcy, 18.5.7
    • tenants, special problems, 18.8
  • CONTEMPT OF COURT
    • automatic stay violations, 9.6.4
    • bankruptcy court powers, 14.2.8
    • discharge, denial, 15.2.2.6
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.7
    • utility companies, 9.8.2.1
  • CONTRACTS
    • arbitration clauses, avoiding, 14.3.2.3
    • bankruptcy clauses, validity, 8.8.2, 11.5.4, 15.5.3
    • cross-collateralization clauses, 15.5.3
    • debt relief agencies, requirement, 16.8.4
    • executory, see EXECUTORY CONTRACTS
    • rent-to-own, see RENT-TO-OWN TRANSACTIONS
    • spreader clauses, 15.5.3
  • CONVERSION OF PROCEEDINGS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
    • bad faith, 13.7.1, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
    • chapter 7 to chapter 12, 17.2.4
    • chapter 7 to chapter 13, 4.2.3, 13.7.1
    • chapter 11 to chapter 7, 17.1.2, 18.7.11
    • chapter 11 to chapter 12, 17.2.4
    • chapter 12 to chapter 7, 17.1.2, 17.4.6.3, 17.4.6.4
    • chapter 12 to chapter 11, 17.4.6.3
    • chapter 12 to chapter 13, 17.4.6.3
    • chapter 13 to chapter 7, 4.2.3, 4.7.4, 8.7.5.4, 13.3.1, 13.7.2, 17.1.2
    • chapter 13 to chapter 12, 17.2.4
    • effect of conversion, 13.7.3
    • involuntary, 13.3.1, 13.7.2, 17.1.2, 17.4.6.4
  • CONVERSION OF PROPERTY
    • see also FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS
    • discharge bar, willful and malicious injury, 15.4.3.6
  • CONVEYANCES
    • see FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS; PREBANKRUPTCY TRANSFERS
  • CORE PROCEEDINGS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
    • determination by court, 14.2.4.3
    • exceptions, 14.2.6
    • mandatory abstention, application, 14.5.2
    • mandatory withdrawal, 14.2.5.2
    • non-core, distinction, 14.2.4.2, 14.2.4.3
    • procedures, 14.2.4.2
  • CORPORATIONS
    • see also BUSINESS BANKRUPTCIES
    • chapter 7 eligibility, 3.2.1.1
    • chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
    • discharges, 15.2.2.1, 18.5.4.4
    • farm corporations, see FARM CORPORATIONS
  • COSIGNERS
    • see also CODEBTORS
    • claims with, chapter 13 priority, 12.4.2
  • COST OF LIVING ADJUSTMENTS
    • federal exemptions, 10.2.2.1
  • COSTS
    • see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS; FILING FEES
  • COUNSEL
    • see ATTORNEYS; DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
  • COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR
    • see also PRACTICE AIDS
    • advantages of bankruptcy, 6.2.1
    • answers to common questions, Appx. K.2
    • bankruptcy discharge, Appx. K.3
    • choosing the type of bankruptcy case, 6.3
    • client handouts, Appx. K
    • credit counseling requirement, see CREDIT COUNSELING
    • debt relief agencies, see DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
    • delaying petition, reasons for
      • exemption planning, 6.5.2.2
      • other reasons, 6.5.3
      • prebankruptcy transfers, 6.5.2.1
    • disadvantages of bankruptcy, 6.2.2
    • exemption planning, 6.5.2.2
    • explaining bankruptcy, 6.1.2
    • options, explaining, 6.1.1
    • paying favored creditors, 6.5.3.2
    • quick filings, considerations, 6.5.1
    • spouses, filing by both, 6.4
    • using credit wisely, Appx. K.4
  • COUNTERCLAIMS
    • see also SETOFFS
    • automatic stay litigation, raising, 9.7.3.1.3, 9.7.3.3.2
    • eviction proceedings, 18.3.4
    • jurisdiction of Bankruptcy Court, 14.2.1, 14.2.4.2
  • COURT OF APPEALS
    • appeals to, 2.4.3, 14.9.2
      • certification, Official Form 24, Appx. D.3
  • COVENANT NOT TO COMPETE
    • executory contract status, 12.9.1
  • CRAMDOWN
    • see also STRIPDOWN
    • chapter 12, 17.5.4
    • chapter 13, 11.6
    • defined, 11.6.1.1
  • CREDIT AGREEMENTS
    • bankruptcy clauses, validity, 8.8.2, 15.5.3
    • spreader clauses, 15.5.3
  • CREDIT CARDS
    • balance transfers, status as preference, 10.4.2.6.4.1
    • debts
      • documentation, 14.4.3.5
      • listing in schedule, Sch. F, 7.3.7.3.4
    • fraud, Rule 2004 examinations, 8.3.15.2
    • security interests created by, enforceability, 5.3.3.3, 15.5.3
    • surrender by debtor, 8.4.3
    • taxes paid with, dischargeability, 15.4.3.13
    • use without intent to pay, 15.4.3.2.3.1, 15.4.3.2.3.2
    • using wisely after bankruptcy, Appx. K.4
  • CREDIT COUNSELING
    • see also COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR
    • approved agencies, 3.2.1.4
      • criteria for approval, Appx. C.1
    • certification of counseling, filing, 7.2.1, 7.3.5
    • cost of briefing, 3.2.1.4, 6.2.2.6
    • debt relief agencies, see DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
    • deferment, 3.2.1.4, 7.2.2
    • involuntary bankruptcies, 14.8
    • overview, 3.2.1.4
    • prepetition attempts at repayment plan, effect, 14.4.3.6
    • prerequisite to filing, 7.3.5
      • chapter 7, 3.2.1.1, 3.2.1.4
      • chapter 12, 17.2.2.1
      • chapter 13, 4.2.1.1
      • effect on ability to file quickly, 6.5.1
    • statement of compliance, 7.3.2, 7.3.5
    • waiver, 3.2.1.4
  • CREDIT HISTORY
    • see also CREDIT REPORTS
    • bankruptcy effect, 6.2.2.3
  • CREDIT INSURANCE
    • chapter 13 plans, rejection, 12.9.3.3
  • CREDIT REPORTS
    • see also CREDIT HISTORY
    • discharged debts, 8.9
    • dismissed petitions, 14.8
    • disputed debts, listing in schedule, 7.3.7.3.1
    • source of information, 5.3.4
  • CREDITORS
    • addition after first meeting, 8.5
    • address for notice, 9.6.3.2.3, 9.6.3.2.4
    • adequate protection, 9.7.3.2.2
    • automatic stay, notification, 8.3.1
    • bankruptcy of, see LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
    • best interests of creditors' test, 7.3.12.3
    • chapter 11 plans
      • classification, 18.7.2.1
      • creditors' committee, 18.7.2.2, 18.7.3
      • plan proposal, 18.7.9
      • voting on, 18.7.2.1
    • claims, see CLAIMS BY CREDITORS
    • classification in chapter 13 plans, 7.3.12.3
    • consumers as, see CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
    • distribution of assets in chapter 7, 3.5.4
    • equitable subordination, use of doctrine against, 18.5.6
    • filing deadlines, 3.3, 15.4.3.3
    • first meeting, see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
    • government, see GOVERNMENT CLAIMS; GOVERNMENTAL UNITS
    • list of creditors
      • failure to list, effect, 15.4.3.3
      • filing, 7.3.4
      • mailing matrix, 7.2.1, 15.4.3.3
      • schedules, Sch. D/-/Sch. F, 7.3.7.3
    • meeting, see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
    • notification of case, 15.4.3.3
    • objections to exemptions, 8.5, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
    • preferences, see PREFERENCES
    • priority unsecured creditors, see PRIORITY UNSECURED CREDITORS
    • secured creditors, see SECURED CREDITORS
    • setoffs, see SETOFFS
    • tax returns, provision to, 8.3.4.1
    • turnover of property to trustee, see AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
    • unsecured creditors, see UNSECURED CREDITORS
  • CRIMINAL FINES
    • see FINES AND PENALTIES
  • CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
    • see also LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
    • automatic stay, application, 9.4.6.2, 9.4.7
    • delay of discharge pending, 10.2.3.4.5.6, 15.2.2.12
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.5
    • homestead exemption cap, 10.2.3.4.5
  • CRIMINAL RESTITUTION
    • see RESTITUTION DEBTS
  • CROSS-COLLATERALIZATION CLAUSES
    • validity, 15.5.3
  • CURING DEFAULT
    • see RIGHT TO CURE
  • CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
    • see also INCOME
    • deductions from, 13.4.5
    • defined, 12.3.4.4.1, 13.4.3.2.1
    • determination, 13.4.3.2
      • six-month average, 13.4.3.2.1
      • statutory exemptions, 13.4.3.2.7
    • disposable income, see DISPOSABLE INCOME
    • means test, see MEANS TEST
    • presumption of abuse, 13.4.6.1
    • statement of, see STATEMENT OF CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
  • CUSTODIAN
    • definition, 9.9
  • CUSTODY PROCEEDINGS
    • see also DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS; FAMILY LAW PROCEEDINGS
    • attorney fees, dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.3
  • DAMAGES
    • see also RESTITUTION DEBTS
    • automatic stay violations, 8.3.1, 9.6.2
      • notice requirements, 9.6.3.3
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, violations, 16.6
    • discharge injunction violations, 15.5.1.4
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.6, 18.5.4.2.1
  • DEBT BUYERS
    • proof of claim, 14.4.3.4.7, 14.4.3.5
  • DEBT CEILING
    • chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2.4.2
  • DEBT COLLECTORS
    • see also COLLECTION AGENCIES
    • regulation, 6.2.1.1
  • DEBT MANAGEMENT PLANS
    • filing with certificate of credit counseling, 7.3.5
  • DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
    • see also BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
    • advertisements, 16.8.5
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, status, 16.6
    • defined, 16.8.1.1
      • exclusions, 16.8.1.2
    • disclosure requirements, 16.8.3
    • provisions
      • application to attorneys, 16.8.1
      • failure to comply, 16.8.6
    • restrictions on, 16.8.2
    • statement about bankruptcy assistance services, 16.8.3.3
    • written contract requirement, 16.8.4
  • DEBTOR-IN-POSSESSION (DIP)
    • chapter 11 reorganizations
      • operation of business, 18.8.4
      • removal, 18.7.4
    • chapter 12 farm reorganizations
      • see also FARMERS
      • avoidance actions, pursuance, 17.4.1.1
      • lien avoidance powers, 17.4.3.5
      • recapture powers, 17.4.3.5
      • reinstatement, 17.3.2
      • removal, 17.3.2, 17.4.1.3
      • separate legal entity, powers, 17.3.1
    • chapter 13, 18.8.4
  • DEBTOR PLANS
    • see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN); CHAPTER 13 PLANS
  • DEBTORS
    • see also CONSUMER DEBTS
    • ability to pay test, see ABILITY TO PAY TEST
    • actions against, automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
    • actions brought by, automatic stay, effect, 9.4.2, 14.4.2
    • assistance to, debt relief agency provisions, 16.8
    • attendance at hearings
      • confirmation, 8.6
      • discharge, 8.8
      • meeting of creditors, 8.4.3
    • audits, 8.3.15.1, Appx. C.2
    • available relief, notice by clerk of bankruptcy court, 7.3.6
    • awareness of bankruptcy information, 8.4.5
    • causes of action, listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
    • counseling, 6.1, Appx. K
      • see also COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR
    • court orders, refusal to obey, 15.2.2.6, 15.3
    • credit and reputation, bankruptcy effect on, 6.2.2.3, 6.3.3
    • credit cards, surrender, 8.4.3
    • creditors, as, see CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS; LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
    • death of debtor, effect on case, 13.3.1
    • DIP, see DEBTOR-IN-POSSESSION (DIP)
    • discrimination after bankruptcy, 6.2.2.4, 15.5.4, 15.5.5
    • dishonesty, denial of discharge, 15.2.2.4, 15.2.2.5
    • examination of
      • additional examination, Rule 2004, 8.3.15.2
      • awareness of bankruptcy information, 8.4.5
      • meeting of creditors, at, 1.1.2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 8.4.3, 8.4.5
    • expenses of, 5.3.3.4
    • farmers, see FARMERS
    • feelings of moral obligation, 6.2.2.5
    • filing of creditor claims, 8.4.6
    • financial affairs, see STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
    • fishermen, see FISHERMEN
    • fraudulent conduct, see FRAUD
    • gathering information, 5.3.3
    • identification, 8.4.2, 8.4.3
    • imprisonment, habeas corpus, 14.4.5, 15.5.5.7
    • income, see INCOME
    • intention regarding collateral, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
    • material misstatement, 8.3.15.1
    • NCLC bankruptcy treatise, focus, 1.2, 1.3.4.1
    • NCLC Guide to Surviving Debt, 6.1.2
    • nonbankruptcy approaches, 6.2.2.8.2
    • personal liability, elimination, 15.5.1.2
    • personal property leases, assumption, 12.9.5.3
    • property, see BANKRUPTCY ESTATE; PROPERTY
    • sale of assets, 18.9.3
    • small businesses, 18.7.10
    • testify, refusal, 15.2.2.6
    • using credit wisely, Appx. K.4
  • DEBTS
    • see also LIABILITIES
    • consumer as creditor, see CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
    • consumer debts, see CONSUMER DEBTS
    • dischargeability, see DISCHARGEABILITY
    • family farmers and fishermen, chapter 12 eligibility
      • arising from operation, 17.2.2.4.3
      • ceiling, 17.2.2.4.2
    • reaffirmation, see REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENTS
    • student loans, see STUDENT LOANS
  • DECEPTIVE PRACTICES
    • see UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES
  • DECLARATIONS
    • attorneys, requirement on petition, 7.3.2, 7.3.6
    • bankruptcy petition, 7.3.2
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, 16.6
      • Form 19A, Appx. D.3
    • debtors, truth of schedules, 7.3.7.7, 7.4
    • statement of financial affairs, 7.3.8, 7.4
  • DECLARATORY RELIEF
    • issues in dispute, 8.3.10
  • DEFAULT, CURING
    • see RIGHT TO CURE
  • DEFENSES
    • see also COUNTERCLAIMS
    • automatic stay, motions for relief, 9.7.3
    • student loan debts, 15.4.3.8.4
  • DEFERRED PAYMENT CONTRACTS
    • listing in schedules, 7.3.7.3.4
  • DEFINITIONS
    • adequate assurance, 9.8.2.2.1, 12.9.2
    • adversary proceeding, 14.2.4.1
    • advertising, 16.8.5
    • allowed secured claim, 11.1, 11.4.2.4.2
    • bankruptcy, 2.1
    • bankruptcy estate, 2.5
    • bankruptcy petition preparer, 16.6
    • case, 1.4.2
    • cause, 18.7.11
    • charitable contribution, 10.4.2.6.5
    • claim, 15.5.1.1
    • claim against the debtor, 11.6.2.4
    • commercial fishing operation, 17.2.2.3
    • consumer debt, 3.5, 11.5.2, 13.4.2
    • contingent debt, 7.3.7.3, 12.2.3.2
    • cramdown, 11.6.1.1
    • creditor, 10.2.3.4.3
    • current monthly income, 12.3.4.4.1, 13.4.3.2.1
    • custodian, 9.9
    • debt, 12.2.3.1, 15.5.1.1
    • debt relief agency, 16.8.1.1
    • dependent, 13.4.5.2.1
    • disposable income, 7.3.12.3, 12.3.4.1
    • domestic support obligations, 15.4.3.5.2, 17.5.8
    • domicile, 10.2.1.2
    • effective notice, 9.6.3.3
    • embezzlement, 15.4.3.4
    • entity, 9.9
    • executory contract, 7.3.7.4, 12.9.1
    • exempt property, 10.1.2
    • family farmer, 17.1.2, 17.2.2.4
    • family fisherman, 17.2.2.4
    • farmer, 17.1.2
    • farming operation, 17.2.2.3
    • fraudulent transfers, 10.4.2.6.5
    • good faith, 9.3.3.2.3, 12.3.3
    • good faith purchaser, 9.4.6.7
    • health care business, 18.10
    • household, 13.4.3.3
    • household goods, 10.4.2.4
    • incidental property, 11.6.1.2.2.4
    • income, 13.4.3.2.8
    • individual with regular income, 4.2.1.2, 12.2.2
    • insider, 15.2.2.7
    • insolvent, 10.4.2.6.5
    • insufficiency, 10.4.2.6.7
    • item, 10.2.2.4
    • judicial lien, 10.4.2.3
    • larceny, 15.4.3.4
    • liquidated debt, 12.2.3.2
    • luxury goods or services, 12.3.4.4.5, 15.4.3.2.3.2
    • median family income, 13.4.3.3
    • modify, 11.6.1
    • no-asset case, 3.1
    • primarily, 13.4.2
    • principal residence, 11.6.1.2.2.6
    • proceedings, 1.4.2, 14.2.4.1
    • public assistance, 10.2.2.11
    • purchaser, 9.4.6.7, 10.4.2.6.6
    • qualified education loans, 15.4.3.8.1
    • regular annual income, 17.2.2.2
    • return, 15.4.3.1.1
    • secured debt, 12.2.3.1
    • security interest, 10.4.2.6.4.3, 11.6.1.2.2.6
    • substantially contemporaneous, 10.4.2.6.4.2
    • transfer, 9.4.6.7, 10.4.2.1, 10.4.2.6.6
    • undue hardship, 15.4.3.8.2.2
    • unexpired lease, 7.3.7.4
    • unliquidated debt, 7.3.7.3
    • value, 10.4.2.6.5
  • DEPENDENTS
    • exemption claims
      • exemption planning, 10.4.1
      • filing deadline, 10.3.1
    • IRS definition, 13.4.5.2.1
    • means test deduction, 13.4.5.2.1, 13.4.5.3.6
  • DISABILITY BENEFITS
    • see also BENEFITS REPLACING WAGES
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
  • DISABLED PERSONS
    • credit counseling, waiver of requirement, 3.2.1.4
    • financial management course, waiver, 8.3.3
    • support expenses, means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.6
    • veterans, means test exemption, 13.4.4
  • DISASTER SITUATIONS
    • federal farm programs, 17.1.4.4.2
  • DISCHARGE INJUNCTION
    • enforcement of discharge, 15.5.1.4, 15.5.5.7
    • incorrect crediting of payments as violation, 14.4.3.4.8
  • DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
    • see also DISCHARGEABILITY
    • bars to
      • chapter 13, 4.2.1.5
      • dishonesty, 15.2.2.4
      • excepted debts, 15.4
      • failure to complete financial management course, 8.3.3, 15.2.2.11
      • failure to explain loss or deficiency, 15.2.2.5
      • failure to pay support obligations, 12.3.6.3, 17.5.8
      • fraud, 15.4.3.2, 15.4.3.4
      • intentional concealment, 15.2.2.2
      • non-individuals, 15.2.2.1
      • prior discharge, 12.10.1, 15.2.2.8, 15.2.2.9
      • prohibited acts in another case, 15.2.2.7
      • refusal to obey court orders, 15.2.2.6
      • unjustified failure to keep books or records, 15.2.2.3
    • chapter 7
      • denial, effect, 15.2.1
      • discharge order, 8.8.1
      • distinguishing from chapter 13, 12.10.2
      • forms, Appx. E.8.1, Appx. E.8.2
      • hearing, 3.6, 8.8.3
      • notice of discharge, 3.6
      • objections, grounds, 15.2.2
      • postpetition debts, 4.7.4, 13.7.2
      • prior discharge, effect, 12.10.1
      • requirements, meeting, 3.2.1.3
      • scope, 3.6
    • chapter 12
      • forms, Appx. E.8.5, Appx. E.8.6
      • hardship discharge, 17.7.2
      • objections to, 17.4.5
      • revocation, 17.7.3
      • scope, 17.4.5, 17.7.1
    • chapter 13
      • consumers as creditors, 18.5.4.3
      • distinguishing from chapter 7, 12.10.2
      • forms, Appx. E.8.3, Appx. E.8.4
      • hardship discharge, 4.7.2, 8.7.5.3
      • hearing, 4.8, 8.8.3
      • notice of discharge, 4.8
      • postpetition claims, 4.6, 8.7.2
      • prior discharges, effect, 12.10
      • priority unsecured debts, 12.3.6.1
      • reopening after, 4.8
      • revocation, 4.8
      • right to, 4.2.1.5, 4.8
      • scope, 4.8
      • support obligations, 12.3.6.1, 12.3.6.3
      • tax debts, 12.3.6.1, 12.3.6.2
    • client handout, Appx. K.3
    • corporate or partnership debtors, 18.5.4.4
    • criminal penalties, 15.4.3.7, 15.4.3.12
    • delay due to presumption of undue hardship, 15.5.2.4
    • delay to determine homestead exemption, 10.2.3.4.5.6, 15.2.2.12
    • denial prior bankruptcy, effect, 15.4.3.10
    • domestic support obligations, 15.4.3.5
    • drivers' licenses, return after, 15.5.5.1
    • effect on discharged claims, 15.5.1
    • enforcement of discharge, 15.5.5.7
    • exceptions to discharge, see DISCHARGEABILITY
    • exempt property, protection after, 10.5
    • fines and penalties, 15.4.3.7, 15.5.5.5
    • hardship discharge
      • chapter 12, 17.7.2
      • chapter 13, 4.7.2, 8.7.5.3
      • exceptions, 15.4.1
      • student loans, 15.4.3.8.2.2, 15.4.3.8.3
    • hearings
      • attendance of debtor, 8.8.1
      • chapter 7, 3.6
      • chapter 13, 4.8
      • circumstances, 8.8.1
      • discretionary nature, 1.1.2.3, 8.8.1
      • procedure at, 8.8.3
      • reaffirmation of debt, 3.6, 8.8.2
    • incorrect crediting of payments as violation of, 14.4.3.4.8
    • injunctive enforcement, see DISCHARGE INJUNCTION
    • listing of debts, requirement, 7.3.7.3
    • objections in chapter 7 cases, 15.2
      • grounds, 15.2.2
      • how they arise, 15.2.1
      • voluntary dismissal, 15.2.1
    • order for, 8.8.1
      • forms, Appx. E.8
      • Official Form 18, Appx. D.3
    • overview, 8.8.1
    • parking tickets, 15.4.3.7
    • personal financial management course prerequisite, 8.3.3
    • postpetition debts, 4.6, 4.7.4, 8.7.2, 13.7.2
    • presumption in favor, elimination, 13.4.7.3
    • prior discharges, effect, 12.10, 15.2.2.8, 15.2.2.9
    • protections
      • discrimination, 15.5.4, 15.5.5
      • enforcement, 15.5.5.7
      • problems regarding, 15.5.5
      • reaffirmation, 15.5.2
      • scope, 15.5.1
      • secured debts, 15.5.3
    • reaffirmation after, restriction, 15.5.2.1
    • revocation, grounds, 15.3
    • selected provisions, Appx. A.3
    • steps after discharge, 8.9
    • student loans, 15.4.3.8
    • tax claims, 6.5.3.4, 7.3.7.3.3, 12.3.6.1
    • tax consequences, 15.5.5.6
    • unsecured debts, advantage of bankruptcy, 6.2.1.1
    • written waiver, 15.2.2.10
  • DISCHARGEABILITY
    • see also DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
    • chapter 7, 3.6
    • chapter 12, 17.4.5
    • chapter 13, 4.8
    • chapter 13 differences, 15.4.1
    • collateral estoppel, application, 15.4.4
    • condominium fees, 15.4.3.15
    • consumers as creditors
      • chapter 13, 18.5.4.3
      • chapters 7, 11, and 12, 18.5.4.2
      • claims, 18.2.1, 18.5.4.1
      • corporate or partnership debtors, 18.5.4.4
    • criminal fines, 15.4.3.7
    • criminal restitution, 15.4.3.12
    • debts incurred through fraud, 15.4.3.2
    • debts not listed or scheduled, 15.4.3.3
    • determination
      • complaints by creditor, 8.3.10, 15.4
      • complaints by debtor, 8.3.8
      • forum, 15.4.2, 15.4.4
      • jurisdiction, 15.4.4
      • raising issue, time, 15.4.2
    • domestic support obligations, 15.4.3.5
    • drunk driving debts, 15.4.3.9
    • embezzled funds, 15.4.3.4
    • federal depository responsibilities, 15.4.3.11
    • federal tax paid by credit card, 15.4.3.13
    • fiduciaries committing fraud, 15.4.3.4
    • fines and penalties, 15.4.3.7
      • election law fines, 15.4.3.13
    • fraudulently incurred debts, 15.4.3.2, 15.4.3.4
    • governmental units, support debts, 15.4.3.5.2
    • home owner association fees, 15.4.3.15
    • larcenous funds, 15.4.3.4
    • marital property settlements, 15.4.3.5.3, 15.4.3.14
    • military retention bonuses, 15.4.3.19
    • pension loans, 15.4.3.17
    • prior bankruptcy debts, 15.4.3.10, 15.4.3.20
    • prisoner litigation, costs and fees, 15.4.3.16
    • public benefit debts, 15.5.5.4
    • public benefit overpayments, 15.4.3.2.3.3
    • res judicata, application, 15.4.3.20, 15.4.4
    • restitution obligations, 9.4.6.2, 15.4.3.12
    • securities violation debts, 15.4.3.18
    • student loans, 15.4.3.8
      • undue hardship test, 15.4.3.8.2.2
    • taxes, 6.5.3.4, 15.4.3.1, 15.4.3.13
    • willful and malicious injury, 15.4.3.6
  • DISCLOSURES
    • attorney compensation, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.2
      • form, Appx. E.4
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, 16.8.3.4
      • compensation disclosure, 7.3.13.2, Appx. E.9
    • debt relief agencies, 16.8.3
      • advertisements, 16.8.5
    • reaffirmation agreements, 15.5.2.2, 15.5.2.5
  • DISCOVERY
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.2, 18.9.2
    • automatic stay relief
      • expedited discovery, 9.7.3.3.2
      • generally, 9.7.3.1.2
      • valuation issues, 9.7.3.3.1
    • mortgage overcharges, 14.4.3.4.1
    • valuation issues
      • equity in property, 9.7.3.3.1
      • secured claims, 11.2.2.1
  • DISCRIMINATION
    • bankruptcy regarding, protections, 6.2.2.4, 15.5.4, 15.5.5
  • DISMISSAL OF CASE
    • attorney fees and costs, 16.7.2.1
    • chapter 7
      • abuse of provisions, 3.2.1.5, 13.4
      • bad faith, 13.4.7.4
      • crimes, dismissal based on, 13.5
      • involuntary dismissal, 13.3, 13.4
      • motion to dismiss, 13.4.8
      • rejection of executory contract, 13.4.7.5
      • voluntary dismissal, 13.2
    • chapter 11, 18.7.11
    • chapter 12
      • involuntary, 17.4.6.2
      • voluntary, 17.4.6.1
    • chapter 13
      • involuntary dismissal, 13.3
      • voluntary dismissal, 4.7.5, 8.7.5.5, 13.2
    • effect of dismissal, 13.6
    • generally, 13.1
    • involuntary dismissal
      • grounds, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 17.4.6.2
      • motion to dismiss, 8.3.10, 13.3.1
    • prior case in year before petition, effect on stay, 9.3.3
    • voluntary dismissal, 13.2, 17.4.6.1
    • with prejudice, 3.2.1.2
    • without prejudice, 13.4.8
  • DISPOSABLE INCOME
    • see also ABILITY TO PAY TEST; INCOME
    • chapter 12 plans, 17.5.5.3
    • chapter 13 plans, 7.3.12.3, 12.3.4.4
      • deduction of administrative expenses, 12.3.4.4.4
      • exclusions, 12.3.4.4.2
    • current monthly income, see CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
    • defined, 7.3.12.3, 12.3.4.1
    • means test formula, 12.3.4.4.3, 13.4.5
    • Official Form 22C, Appx. D.2
    • projected disposable income, 12.3.4.4.1
    • refinancing proceeds, status, 12.6.6
    • statement of current monthly income, 7.3.9
    • timing petition to lower, 6.5.3.6
  • DISTRICT COURT
    • appeals from, 14.9.3
    • appeals to, 14.9.1
  • DIVIDENDS
    • payments to creditors, 3.5.4
  • DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS
    • see also DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS; FAMILY LAW PROCEEDINGS; MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
    • attorney fees, dischargeability, 10.4.3.5.3
    • automatic stay exemption, 9.4.6.3
    • debts related to, dischargeability, 10.4.3.5
    • related obligations, avoidance, 10.4.2.3.1, 10.4.2.3.2, 10.4.2.6.4.2
  • DOCUMENTS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS; PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS
    • failure to provide, involuntary dismissal, 13.3.2
    • meeting of creditors, 8.4.2
      • chapter 7, 3.4
      • chapter 13, 4.4
    • trustee requests for, Appx. H.7
  • DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
    • see also DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS; MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
    • additional protections, 17.5.8
    • automatic stay, application, 9.4.6.3, 18.3.2
    • avoidance, 10.4.2.3.1, 10.4.2.3.2, 10.4.2.6.4.2
    • chapter 7 distribution, 3.5.4
    • chapter 12 plans, 17.5.8
      • postpetition obligations, 17.4.6.2
    • chapter 13 certification, 4.8
      • form, Appx. E.14
      • prior to discharge, 8.8.1
    • chapter 13 classification, 12.3.6.1, 12.4.3
    • chapter 13, postpetition, 12.3.6.3
    • creditor appearance form, Appx. E.11
    • defined, 15.4.3.5.1, 17.5.8
    • dischargeability, 15.4.1, 15.4.3.5
      • chapter 7, 3.6
      • chapter 13, 4.8
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
    • governmental institutions, rights assigned to, 15.4.3.5.2
    • means test deductions, 13.4.5.3.3
    • payments excluded from disposable income, 12.3.4.4.2.2, 12.3.4.4.2.3
    • property settlement distinguished, 15.4.3.5.3
  • DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
    • expenses to maintain safety from, means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.5
  • DONATIONS
    • see CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS
  • DRIVERS' LICENSES
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.1, 15.5.5.5
  • DRUNK DRIVING DEBTS
    • see IMPAIRED DRIVING DEBTS
  • DUE PROCESS
    • notice to creditors, 18.4.1
  • EDUCATION SAVINGS TRUSTS
    • bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.3
      • timing considerations, 6.5.3.8
    • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
  • EDUCATIONAL EXPENSES
    • means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.8
    • reasonable expenses, 5.3.3.4
  • EDUCATIONAL LOANS
    • see HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOANS (HEAL); QUALIFIED EDUCATION LOANS; STUDENT LOANS
  • ELECTION LAW FINES
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.13
  • ELECTRONIC FILING
    • bankruptcy forms, 7.1.4
      • chapter 7, 3.2.2
      • chapter 13, 4.2.2
      • computer programs, 7.1.3, 7.1.4
    • converting documents to PDF format, Appx. D.1.4.2
    • overview, Appx. D.1.4.1
  • ELIGIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS
    • chapter 7, 3.2.1
    • chapter 12, 17.2.2
    • chapter 13, 4.2.1, 12.2
  • EMBEZZLEMENT
    • see also FRAUD
    • discharge exception, 15.4.3.4
  • EMERGENCY BANKRUPTCIES
    • see also BANKRUPTCY
    • procedures, 7.2.2
  • EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS
    • bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.2, 10.2.2.11
    • contributions, priority claims, 18.7.12.2
  • EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT (ERISA)
    • see ERISA PENSION PLANS
  • EMPLOYER BANKRUPTCY
    • employee priority claims, 18.7.12.2
    • job retention strategies, 18.7.12.3
    • representing employees and other stakeholders, 18.7.12
    • right to intervene, 18.7.12.3.2
    • sale of assets
      • imposing conditions, 18.7.12.3.4
      • opposing, 18.7.12.3.3
  • EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS
    • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.4
  • EMPLOYMENT INCOME
    • see also INCOME
    • payment advices, filing, 7.3.10
  • ENCUMBERED PROPERTY
    • see COLLATERAL; LIENS; SECURITY INTERESTS
  • ENTITY
    • definition, 9.9
  • EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT
    • attorney fee awards, 15.4.3.2.4, 16.5.4, 16.5.7
  • EQUITABLE SUBORDINATION
    • bankruptcy, application, 18.5.6
  • ERISA PENSION PLANS
    • see also PENSIONS
    • bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.2, 10.2.2.11
  • ESCROW OVERCHARGES
    • bankruptcy monitoring fees, 14.4.3.4.5
    • objecting to, 14.4.3.4.2
  • ESSENTIAL SERVICES
    • see UTILITY SERVICES
  • ESTATE
    • see BANKRUPTCY ESTATE
  • ESTOPPEL
    • unlisted causes of action, 14.3.2.6.3
  • EVICTIONS
    • see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES; UNEXPIRED LEASES
    • automatic stay
      • effect, 9.4.3
      • exceptions to stay, 9.4.6.6
      • special problems, 9.7.3.2.4
      • timing the petition, 6.5.3.7
    • landlord bankruptcy, preventing, 18.3.4, 18.8.4
    • petition preparers, misleading advertising, 16.6
    • prepetition judgments, 9.4.6.6.2, 9.7.3.2.4, 12.9.2
  • EXAMINATION OF DEBTOR
    • audits, 8.3.15.1
    • chapter 7, 3.4
      • awareness of bankruptcy information sheet, 8.4.5
    • chapter 13, 4.4
    • meeting of creditors, 1.1.2.4, 8.4.3, 8.4.5
    • Rule 2004 examinations, see RULE 2004 EXAMINATIONS
  • EXAMINERS
    • chapter 11, appointment, 18.7.4.6, 18.7.4.7
  • EXECUTORS
    • see PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVES
  • EXECUTORY CONTRACTS
    • adequate assurance, 12.9.2
    • chapter 12
      • assumption, 17.4.7
      • provisions, 17.5.9
    • chapter 13 plans, 12.9
      • assumption, 12.9.2
      • classification, 12.4.3
      • procedure and tactics, 12.9.4
      • rejection, 12.9.3.1, 12.9.3.3
    • definition, 12.9.1
    • federal farm programs, 17.4.7.2
    • installment land contracts, 17.4.7.3
    • listing
      • filing of list, 7.3.4
      • schedule, Sch. G, 7.3.7.4
    • personal services, abusive rejection, 13.4.7.5
  • EXEMPT PROPERTY
    • automatic allowance, 10.3.4
    • avoidance of transfers, 10.4.2
      • see also AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
    • choice of state or federal exemptions, 10.2.1
    • conversion, effect, 13.7.3
    • cost of living adjustments, 10.2.2.1
    • definition, 10.1.2
    • dependent claims, 10.3.1, 10.4.1
    • determination date, 10.1.2, 10.3.3
    • discharge protections, 10.5, 15.5.1.2
    • earned tax credits, 2.5.5
    • education savings accounts, 2.5.3
    • employee benefit plans, 2.5.2
    • family farmers, 17.4.3
    • federal exemptions
      • see also FEDERAL EXEMPTIONS
      • application, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.1.2
      • cost of living adjustments, 10.2.2.1
      • nonbankruptcy exemptions, 10.2.3
      • specific exemptions, 10.2.2
      • state opt out, 10.2.1.1
      • wild card, 10.2.2.6
    • future benefits, 10.2.2.11
    • health aids, 10.2.2.10
    • homesteads, 10.2.2.2
    • household goods, 10.2.2.4
    • importance to debtor, 10.1.1
    • injury or loss payments, 10.2.2.12
    • item, definition, 10.2.2.4
    • jewelry, 10.2.2.5
    • joint filings, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.2.1, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.3.2
    • life insurance
      • accrued value, 10.2.2.9
      • matured, 10.2.2.8
    • listing in schedule, Sch. C, 7.3.7.2.3
    • livestock, 17.4.3.2
    • money orders, 18.5.2.1
    • motor vehicles, 10.2.2.3
    • objections, filing, 8.5, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
    • pawned personal property, 2.5.4
    • possession issues, 3.5.1, 9.9.4, 10.1.2
    • prebankruptcy planning, 6.5.2.2, 10.4.1, 15.2.2.2
    • procedure for claiming
      • amending claim, 10.3.2
      • initial claim, 10.1.2, 10.3.1
      • Official Form 6, Sch. C, Appx. D.2
    • purpose of exemptions, 10.1.3
    • recovered by trustee, 10.4.2.5
    • recovery after avoidance, 10.4.2.8
    • retirement funds, 2.5.2, 10.2.2.13, 10.2.3.3
    • right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
    • Schedule C, 7.3.7.2.3, Appx. D.2
    • spendthrift trusts, 2.5.2
    • state exemptions
      • see also STATE EXEMPTIONS
      • application, 6.5.2.2, 10.2.1.2
      • domiciliary requirements, 10.2.1.2
      • federal modification, 10.2.3.1
      • joint property, 10.2.3.2
      • property not subject to process, 10.2.3.2
      • retirement funds, 10.2.3.3
      • summaries, Appx. J
    • statement of intention, 7.3.11
    • tools of the trade, 10.2.2.7, 17.4.3.2
    • trust funds, 18.5.2
    • valuation, 10.1.2, 10.3.3
    • waiver, prohibition, 10.4
  • EXPENSES
    • see also FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
    • gathering information, 5.3.3.4
    • IRS local standards
      • housing and utilities, 13.4.5.2.5, Appx. I.2.3
      • transportation, 13.4.5.2.4, Appx. I.2.4
    • IRS National Standards
      • heath care expenses, 13.4.5.2.3, Appx. I.2.5
      • living expenses, 13.4.5.2.2, Appx. I.2.2
    • IRS other necessary expenses, 13.4.5.2.6
    • listing in schedule, Sch. J, 7.3.7.6
    • means test, deductions, 13.4.5.2, 13.4.5.3, Appx. I.2
  • FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT
    • attorney fees, 16.5.3
    • bankruptcy effect on credit, 6.2.2.3
    • discharged debts, reporting, 8.9
  • FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT
    • attorney fees, 16.5.3
    • debtor harassment, stopping, 6.2.1.1
  • FAMILY FARMERS
    • see FARMERS
  • FAMILY FISHERMEN
    • see FISHERMEN
  • FAMILY LAW PROCEEDINGS
    • see also CUSTODY PROCEEDINGS; DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS; DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS; MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
    • attorney fees, dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.3
    • automatic stay exemption, 9.4.6.3, 18.3.2
    • debts pertaining to, dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.3
  • FARM BENEFITS
    • see FARM PROGRAMS
  • FARM CORPORATIONS
    • chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
    • family farmer, inclusion in definition, 17.1.2
  • FARM CREDIT SYSTEM (FCS)
    • described, 17.1.4.2
  • FARM EQUIPMENT
    • see also COLLATERAL
    • redemption, 17.4.3.5.5
    • sales free and clear, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
    • tools of the trade exemption, application, 10.2.2.7, 17.4.3.2
    • unexpired leases, rejection, 17.4.7.4
  • FARM LAND
    • installment contracts as executory contracts, 17.4.7.3
    • recovery as fraudulent transfer, 17.4.3.5.2
    • sales free and clear, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
    • unexpired rental agreements, assumption, 17.4.7.5
  • FARM PROGRAMS
    • basic attributes, 17.1.4.4.2
    • disposition of benefits through plan, 17.5.9
    • executory contract issues, 17.4.7.2
    • exemption status, 17.4.3.1
    • Farm Credit System, 17.1.4.2
    • Farm Service Agency loan programs, 17.1.4.3
    • security interests, dissolution, 17.4.3.4
    • set-offs against government claims, 17.4.4.1, 17.4.12
    • treatment in bankruptcy, 17.1.4.4.1
  • FARM SERVICE AGENCY
    • loan programs, 17.1.4.3
  • FARMERS
    • appointment of counsel, 17.2.3.2
    • bankruptcies
      • see also CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
      • chapter 11 problems, 17.1.3.3
      • chapter 12 availability, 17.2.2
      • chapter 13 problems, 17.1.3.2
      • federal farm programs, treatment, 17.1.4.4.1, 17.4.3.1
      • involuntary bankruptcies, protections, 17.1.2
      • involuntary conversions, protections, 17.1.2
    • benefit programs, see FARM BENEFITS
    • cash collateral, use, 17.4.8
    • corporations, see FARM CORPORATIONS
    • crops, security interests, 17.4.3.4
    • defined, 17.1.2
    • DIP, see DEBTOR-IN-POSSESSION (DIP)
    • disposable income, 17.5.5.3
    • family farmer, defined, 17.1.2, 17.2.2.4
    • farming operation
      • debts arising from, 17.2.2.4.3
      • defined, 17.2.2.3
      • income arising from, 17.2.2.4.4
    • new financing
      • approval, 17.4.9
      • direct payments, 17.5.7.3
      • plan provisions, 17.5.9
    • 1986 legislation, selected provisions, Appx. A.4.3
    • partnerships, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
    • property sales free and clear, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
    • regular annual income, defined, 17.2.2.2
    • reorganizations
      • chapter 11 problems, 17.1.3.3
      • chapter 12, see CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
      • chapter 13 problems, 17.1.3.2
      • options, 17.1.3.1
    • special protections, 17.1.2, 17.1.4.1
    • unique nature of farm finance, 17.1.4
      • economic problems specific to farmers, 17.1.1.2
      • Farm Credit System, 17.1.4.2
      • Farm Service Agency loan programs, 17.1.4.3
      • federal farm programs, 17.1.4.4
  • FARMING OPERATIONS
    • see also FARMERS
    • chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2
      • corporations, 17.2.2.4.5
      • debt ceiling, 17.2.2.4.2
      • nature of debt, 17.2.2.4.3
      • nature of income, 17.2.2.4.4
      • partnerships, 17.2.2.4.5
    • defined, 17.2.2.3
  • FEDERAL AGENCIES
    • see also GOVERNMENTAL UNITS
    • Farm Credit Administration, 17.1.4.2
    • Farm Service Agency, 17.1.4.3
  • FEDERAL COURT
    • bankruptcy cases, access, 14.3.2.3
  • FEDERAL COURTS IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2000
    • selected text, Appx. A.4.8
  • FEDERAL DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS
    • responsibilities regarding, dischargeability, 15.4.3.11
  • FEDERAL EXEMPTIONS
    • see also EXEMPT PROPERTY
    • application, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.1.2
    • choosing, 10.2.1
    • cost of living adjustments, 10.2.2.1
    • nonbankruptcy exemptions, 10.2.3
    • specific exemptions, 10.2.2
    • state opt out, 10.2.1.1
    • wild card, 10.2.2.6
  • FEDERAL FARM PROGRAMS
    • see FARM PROGRAMS
  • FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • see also BANKRUPTCY CODE
    • adversary proceedings, 1.4.2
    • advisory committee notes, 1.5.2
    • amendments to, 1.4.2, 1.4.4.1
    • appeals, 2.4.3
    • contested matters, 1.4.2
    • conversion, 8.7.5.4
    • dismissal of bankruptcy, 8.7.5.5
    • duties of counsel, 16.7.1
    • generally, 1.4.2, Appx. B
    • hardship discharge, 8.7.5.3
    • lien avoidance, application, 8.3.6, 10.4.2.2
    • local rules, effect, 1.4.2, 1.4.4.2
    • military members, means testing, 1.4.2
    • objections to claims, application, 8.3.9
    • official forms, 1.4.3, 7.1.2, Appx. D
      • see also OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • overview, 1.4.2
    • proceedings, 14.2.4
    • relief from automatic stay, 9.7.1
    • Rule 2004 examinations, see RULE 2004 EXAMINATIONS
    • Rule 3001, see RULE 3001
    • Rule 3002.1, see RULE 3002.1
    • Rule 9011, see RULE 9011
    • text, Appx. B
    • violations, 16.7.2.2
  • FEES
    • administrative fees, chapter 13, 12.3.4.4.4, 12.3.6.1
      • means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.7
    • attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
    • bankruptcy monitoring fees, 14.4.3.4.5
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, 7.3.13.2, 16.3.3, 16.6
    • condominium fees, see CONDOMINIUM OR COOPERATIVE FEES
    • credit counseling, 6.2.2.6
    • electronic public access fees, Appx. C.4
    • filing, see FILING FEES
    • fines and penalties, see FINES AND PENALTIES
    • home owners associations, see HOME OWNERS ASSOCIATION FEES
    • miscellaneous fees, Appx. C.3
    • mortgage servicer abuses, 14.4.3.4
    • personal financial management course, 6.2.2.6
    • postpetition fees
      • dispute procedure, 8.7.3, 11.6.2.8.2.4
      • notice requirements, 8.7.3, 11.6.2.8.2.3
    • trustee compensation, chapter 13, 6.2.2.6
    • trustee surcharge, chapter 7, 7.2.1
    • wage orders, validity, 12.6.1
    • waiver of fees, see under FILING FEES; WAIVER
  • FELONS
    • homestead exemption cap, 10.2.3.4.5
  • FIDUCIARIES
    • see TRUSTEES
  • FILING FEES
    • see also FEES
    • chapter 7, 3.2.2
      • waiver, 7.3.13.4, 14.6.2.1, Appx. H.6
    • chapter 12, 17.2.3.3, 14.6.2.2
    • chapter 13, 4.2.2, 14.6.2.2
    • generally, 6.2.2.6, 7.2.1
    • in forma pauperis filings, 14.6
      • bankruptcy court, powers, 14.6.2, 18.6.2
      • consumers as creditors, 18.6
      • general principles, 14.6.1
    • installment payments
      • application for, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.3
      • attorney fees, effect, 7.3.13.3, 16.2.3
      • Official Form 3A, Appx. D.2
      • rejected waiver applications, 7.3.13.4
    • noticing fee, 7.2.1
    • trustee compensation, 6.2.2.6, 7.2.1
    • waiver, 6.2.2.6, 14.6
      • application for, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.4
      • bankruptcy court, powers, 14.6.2, 18.6.2
      • chapter 7, 3.2.2, 14.6.2.1
      • chapter 12, 14.6.2.2, 17.2.3.3
      • chapter 13, 4.2.2, 14.6.2.2
      • consumer as creditor, 18.6.2
      • general principles, 14.6.1
      • Official Form 3B, Appx. D.2
      • statutory authority, 14.6.2
  • FINANCE COMPANY LOANS
    • bankruptcy of lender, see LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
    • personal property collateral, 5.3.3.3
  • FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COURSE
    • see PERSONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COURSE
  • FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
    • chapter 13, annual filing, 8.3.5
    • false use, discharge bar, 15.4.3.2.2
    • statement of financial affairs, see STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
  • FINANCING
    • chapter 12 plans
      • approval, 17.4.9
      • direct payments, 17.5.7.3
      • plan provisions, 17.5.9
    • chapter 13 cases, refinancing during, 12.6.6
  • FINES AND PENALTIES
    • see also RESTITUTION DEBTS
    • Bankruptcy Rule 9011 violations, 16.7.2.2
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.5
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.7
      • chapter 13, 4.8
    • liens securing, avoidance, 10.4.2.6.8
    • related provisions, Appx. A.3
  • FIRST MEETING OF CREDITORS
    • see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
  • FISHERMEN
    • appointment of counsel, 17.2.3.2
    • commercial fishing operation
      • corporations, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
      • debts arising from, 17.2.2.4.3
      • defined, 17.2.2.3
      • income arising from, 17.2.2.4.4
      • partnerships, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
    • family fisherman, defined, 17.2.2.4
    • regular annual income, defined, 17.2.2.2
    • reorganizations
      • see also CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
      • chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2
  • FORECLOSURE
    • automatic stay, effect, 8.3.1, 9.4.2, 9.4.3
      • repeat filers, 9.3.3.6, 9.4.6.5.1
    • avoidance of transfers, 10.4.2.6.5
    • bankrupt lenders, 18.9.2
    • capital gains liability, 11.3.4
    • chapter 13 filing to prevent, 6.3.3
    • discharge, after, validity, 15.5.3
    • escrow overcharges, 14.4.3.4.2
    • fraudulent transfer status, 10.4.2.6.5
      • farm land, 17.4.3.5.2
    • notice of filing to forestall, 8.3.1
    • right to cure after, 11.6.2.2
  • FORMA PAUPERIS
    • see IN FORMA PAUPERIS
  • FORMS
    • see BANKRUPTCY FORMS
  • FORUM
    • bringing matters before bankruptcy forum, 14.4
    • discharge protections, enforcement, 15.5.5.7
    • dischargeability determinations, 15.4.2, 15.4.4
  • FRAUD
    • see also EMBEZZLEMENT; LARCENY
    • confirmation revocation
      • chapter 12 plans, 17.8.3
      • chapter 13 plans, 4.5
    • credit card fraud, Rule 2004 examinations, 8.3.15.2
    • credit use with no intent to pay, 15.4.3.2.3.2
    • discharge bar
      • claims based on, 18.5.4.2.1
      • debts incurred through, 15.4.3.2
      • fiduciary fraud, 15.4.3.4
      • intentional concealment, 15.2.2.2
      • prohibited acts in another case, 15.2.2.7
    • discharge revocation, 15.3
    • luxury goods or services within 60 days, 6.5.2.1, 15.4.3.2.3.2
    • spouse or agent, liability of debtor, 15.4.3.2.2.2
  • FRAUDULENT CONVERSION
    • nonexempt property into exempt property, 10.2.3.4.3
  • FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS
    • avoidance
      • chapter 11, 18.7.6
      • generally, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
    • charitable donations, status, 1.1.2.6, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
    • discharge bar, circumstances, 15.2.2.2
    • exemption planning not, 6.5.2.2, 15.2.2.2
    • farm land, foreclosed, recapture, 17.4.3.5.2
    • gambling losses, status, 10.4.2.6.5
    • prebankruptcy transfers, 6.5.2.1
  • GAMBLING LOSSES
    • avoidance status, 10.4.2.6.5
  • GARNISHMENTS
    • see WAGE GARNISHMENTS
  • GIFTS
    • reasonable expenses, 5.3.3.4
  • GOOD FAITH TEST
    • ability to pay, 13.4.7.1, 13.4.7.4
    • automatic stay extension where prior case dismissal, 9.3.3.2.2
    • chapter 12, 17.5.7.1
    • chapter 13, 12.3.3, 12.3.5
    • presumption of not good faith, 9.3.3.2.2
      • overcoming, 9.3.3.2.3
  • GOVERNMENT BENEFITS
    • see FARM PROGRAMS; PUBLIC BENEFITS
  • GOVERNMENT CLAIMS
    • allowed secured claims, 11.2.1.1
    • automatic stay, 9.4.4
    • chapter 12 reorganizations, setoff rights, 17.4.12
    • proof of claim, filing, time, 14.4.3.2
    • register of addresses, 7.3.7.3.1
    • sovereign immunity
      • abrogation, 9.6.6, 14.3.2.2
      • stripdown, effect, 11.2.1.1
    • support obligations, 15.4.3.5.2
    • tax claims, see TAX CLAIMS
  • GOVERNMENTAL UNITS
    • address register, 7.3.7.3.1
    • automatic stay violations, 9.6.6
    • bankruptcy filing, notification, 7.3.7.3
    • claims by, see GOVERNMENT CLAIMS
    • discrimination by, prohibited, 6.2.2.4, 15.5.4
    • fee awards against, 16.5.7
    • raising claims on behalf of consumers, 18.5.4.2.1
    • sovereign immunity, abrogation, 9.6.6, 14.3.2.2
    • support obligations owed to, dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.2
    • utilities as, 9.8.2.2.5
  • GUARANTORS
    • see COSIGNERS
  • GUARDIANS
    • bankruptcy petitions, filing, 3.2.1.1
  • GUIDE TO SURVIVING DEBT (NCLC)
    • counseling consumer debtors, 6.1.2
  • HABEAS CORPUS
    • bankruptcy court, powers, 14.4.5
    • incarcerated debtors, 14.4.5, 15.5.5.7
  • HARASSMENT BY CREDITORS
    • notice of automatic stay, 8.3.1
    • restrictions, 6.2.1.1
  • HARDSHIP DISCHARGE
    • see also DISCHARGE OF DEBTS IN BANKRUPTCY
    • chapter 12, 17.7.2
    • chapter 13, 4.7.2, 8.7.5.3
    • exceptions, 15.4.1
    • HEAL debts, 15.4.3.8.6
  • HEALTH AIDS
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.10
    • non-purchase money liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
  • HEALTH CARE BUSINESSES
    • bankruptcies, patient protections, 18.10
  • HEALTH CARE EXPENSES
    • IRS National Standards, 13.4.5.2.3, Appx. I.2.5
  • HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOANS (HEAL)
    • see also STUDENT LOANS
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.8.6, 15.4.3.20
  • HEALTH INSURANCE
    • chapter 13 plans, modification to purchase, 4.6, 12.3.4.5
    • means test deduction, 13.4.5.3.4
  • HEARINGS
    • abandonment of property, 11.3.3
    • automatic stay relief
      • continuation, 9.7.3.3.2
      • right to, 9.7.1
      • time limits, 9.7.2
    • chapter 12 plans
      • confirmation, 17.5.2
      • postconfirmation modifications, 17.8.1
      • revocation of confirmation, 17.8.3
    • chapter 13 eligibility, determination, 12.2.3.3
    • confirmation hearings
      • attendance, 8.6
      • chapter 12, 17.5.2
      • chapter 13, 4.5, 8.6
    • discharge hearing
      • attendance, 8.8.1
      • chapter 7, 3.6
      • chapter 13, 4.8
      • discretionary nature, 1.1.2.3, 8.8.1
      • procedure at, 8.8.3
      • reaffirmation of debt, 8.8.2
    • disposition by trustee, 11.3.4
    • objections to exemptions, 8.5, 10.3.3
  • HOME AFFORDABLE MODIFICATION PROGRAM (HAMP)
    • voluntary loan modification, 11.6.1.5
  • HOME OFFICE EQUIPMENT
    • tools of the trade exemption, 10.2.2.7
  • HOME OWNERS ASSOCIATION FEES
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.15
  • HOMESTEAD EXEMPTION
    • see also PRINCIPAL RESIDENCE
    • chapter 13 discharge, statement prior to, 8.8.1
    • discharge delay to determine, 10.2.3.4.5.6, 15.2.2.12
    • exemption pourover, 10.2.2.6
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.2
    • limitations on, 10.2.3.4
    • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.3
    • objections, time, 10.3.3
    • state exemptions, 6.5.2.2, 10.2.3.4
  • HOUSEHOLD GOODS
    • see also JEWELRY; PERSONAL PROPERTY
    • definition, 10.4.2.4
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.4, 10.2.2.6
    • luxury goods, see LUXURY GOODS OR SERVICES
    • means test expense deduction, 13.4.5.2.2
      • IRS standards, Appx. I.2.2
    • non-purchase money liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
    • right of redemption, use, 11.5.5
    • valuation, 11.2.2.3.3
      • date, 11.2.2.2.2
      • replacement value, 11.2.2.3.1
  • HOUSING
    • see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.3
    • means test expense deduction, 13.4.5.2.5
      • IRS standards, Appx. I.2.3
  • IDENTIFICATION
    • debtors at meeting of creditors, 8.4.2, 8.4.3
  • IMPAIRED DRIVING DEBTS
    • see also PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS; WRONGFUL DEATH CLAIMS
    • dischargeability, 15.4.1, 15.4.3.6, 15.4.3.9
  • IMPRISONMENT
    • debtors, habeas corpus, 14.4.5, 15.5.5.7
    • discharged debts, protections, 15.5.5.5
  • IN FORMA PAUPERIS
    • consumers as creditors, 18.6
      • need to proceed as, 18.6.1
      • seeking relief, 18.6.2
    • debtors proceeding as, 14.6
    • prisoner litigation, 15.4.3.16
    • waiver of filing fees, 6.2.2.6, 14.6, 18.6.2
      • general principles, 14.6.1
      • Official Form 3B, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.4, Appx. D.2
      • statutory authority, 14.6.2
  • IN REM ORDERS
    • automatic stay relief, 9.4.6.5.2, 9.7.3.1.5
  • INCAPACITATED PERSONS
    • credit counseling, waiver, 3.2.1.4
    • financial management course, waiver, 8.3.3
  • INCOME
    • see also DISPOSABLE INCOME
    • chapter 7, abuse of provisions, 13.4
    • chapter 12 plans
      • disposable income, 17.5.5.3
      • eligibility, 6.2.2.3
    • chapter 13 plans
      • disposable income, 7.3.12.3
      • annual statement of income and expenses, 8.3.5
      • submission to trustee, 7.3.12.3, 12.6.1
    • current monthly income, see CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
    • definition, 13.4.3.2.8
    • expenses, 5.3.3.4, 13.4.5.2, 13.4.5.3
    • family farmers and fishermen
      • arising from operation, 17.2.2.4.4
      • regular annual income, 17.2.2.2
    • listing in schedule, Sch. I, 7.3.7.6
    • payment advices, filing, 7.3.10
    • statements
      • see also FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
      • current monthly income, 7.3.9, 13.4.3.2.1
      • financial affairs, 7.3.8
  • INCOME TAX CREDITS
    • see TAX CREDITS
  • INCOME TAX REFUNDS
    • see TAX REFUNDS
  • INCOME TAX RETURNS
    • see TAX RETURNS
  • INCOMPETENT PERSONS
    • bankruptcy filings
      • chapter 7, 3.2.1.1
      • chapter 13, 4.2.1.1
  • INDEPENDENT PARALEGALS
    • see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS; NON-ATTORNEYS
  • INDIAN TRIBAL LAW
    • exemptions, 10.2.3.1
  • INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS (IRAs)
    • see also PENSIONS
    • bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.2
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.13.1
      • cap, 10.2.2.13.3
    • withdrawals, income treatment, 13.4.3.2.6
  • INDIVIDUAL WITH REGULAR INCOME
    • definition, 4.2.1.2, 12.2.2
  • INFANTS
    • see MINORS
  • INHERITANCES
    • bankruptcy estate, inclusion, 8.2
  • INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
    • automatic stay, enforcement, 9.6.5
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, against, 16.6
    • chapter 11 plan provisions providing, 18.9.5
    • discharge protections, see DISCHARGE INJUNCTION
    • proceeding not covered by automatic stay, 9.4.7
  • INJURY
    • personal injury claims, see PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS
    • willful and malicious, dischargeability, 15.4.3.6
  • INSTALLMENT LAND CONTRACTS
    • executory contract issues, 17.4.7.3
  • INSURANCE
    • see also CREDIT INSURANCE; LIFE INSURANCE
    • gathering information regarding
      • assets, 5.3.3.2
      • expenses, 5.3.3.4
    • personal property, proof in chapter 13 cases, 8.3.13, 12.8.4
  • INTEREST OVERCHARGES
    • objecting to, 14.4.3.4.3
  • INTEREST PAYMENTS
    • allowed secured claims, 11.6.1.3.3.6
    • chapter 12 plans, 17.5.4.3
    • chapter 13 plans, 12.6.2
    • long-term debts, right to cure, 11.6.2.7.2
  • INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
    • see also GOVERNMENTAL UNITS
    • automatic stay, 9.4.4, 9.5
    • living expense standards, 7.3.9, 13.4.5.2, Appx. I.2
    • practice aids, Appx. H
    • tax claims, see TAX CLAIMS
    • tax refunds, see TAX REFUNDS
    • transcripts from, 15.4.3.1.2, Appx. H.2
  • INTERNET RESOURCES
    • see WEB RESOURCES
  • INVOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCIES
    • see also BANKRUPTCY
    • consumers as creditors, 18.2.2
    • farmers, restrictions, 17.1.2
    • frivolous petitions, protections, 14.8
    • generally, 14.8
  • IPSO FACTO CLAUSES
    • see BANKRUPTCY CLAUSES
  • JEWELRY
    • see also HOUSEHOLD GOODS; LUXURY GOODS OR SERVICES; PERSONAL PROPERTY
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.5
    • non-purchase money liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
  • JOINT BANKRUPTCIES
    • see also BANKRUPTCY; CODEBTORS; SPOUSES
    • advantages, 6.4
    • attorney fees, 16.2.2
    • chapter 12 reorganizations
      • debt ceiling, 17.2.2.4.2
      • exempt property, 17.4.3.1
      • filings, generally, 17.2.2.5
    • consolidation of cases, 6.4
    • current monthly income, 13.4.3.2.3
    • exempt property, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.2.1, 10.2.3.1, 10.2.3.2
      • homestead caps, application, 10.2.3.4.5.7
    • federal exemptions, 10.2.2.1
    • filing costs, 6.4
    • financial management course, 8.3.3
    • involuntary, validity, 14.8
    • prior individual filings, effect, 9.3.3.2.1, 9.3.3.3
    • schedules, filing, 7.3.7.3, 7.3.7.6
    • statement of financial affairs, 7.3.8
    • substantive consolidation, differences, 6.4
  • JOINT PROPERTY
    • see also SPOUSES
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
    • discharge, effect on, 15.5.1.4
    • distribution of community property, 3.5.4
    • effect of bankruptcy, 2.5
    • exemption provisions
      • application, 10.2.1.1, 10.2.2.1
      • homestead exemption,, 10.2.2.2
      • state exemptions, 10.2.3.2
    • joint filings, see JOINT BANKRUPTCIES
    • judicial liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.3.3
    • listing in schedules, 7.3.7.2.1
  • JUDGMENTS
    • see also JUDICIAL LIENS
    • consumers as creditors, 18.2.1, 18.2.2
    • discharge, effect on, 15.5.1.3
    • landlords, prepetition
      • chapter 13 plan confirmation, effect, 12.9.2
      • stay exemption, 9.4.6.6.2, 9.7.3.2.4
  • JUDICIAL ESTOPPEL
    • unscheduled claims, 14.3.2.6.3
  • JUDICIAL IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1990
    • selected provisions, Appx. A.4.5
  • JUDICIAL LIENS
    • see also JUDGMENTS; LIENS
    • avoidance
      • divorce related liens, 10.4.2.3.1, 10.4.2.3.2
      • exempt property, 10.4.2.3, 10.4.2.10
      • extent of power to avoid, 10.4.2.3.1
      • family farmers, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5
      • joint property, 10.4.2.3.3
      • judgments, 15.5.1.3
      • limitations on, 10.4.2.3.2
    • chapter 13 cramdown, application, 11.6.1.2.2.6
    • definition, 10.4.2.3.1
  • JUDICIAL SALES
    • fraudulent transfer status, 10.4.2.6.5
  • JURISDICTION
    • abstention, 14.5.1
    • automatic stay
      • relief from stay, 9.7.1
      • violations, 9.6.5
    • bankruptcy court, 2.4.2, 14.2
    • bringing matters before bankruptcy forum, 14.4
    • constitutionality, 14.2.1
    • contempt powers, 14.2.8
    • core and non-core proceedings, 14.2.4.2
    • counterclaims, 14.2.1, 14.2.4.2
    • discharge protections, enforcement, 15.5.5.7
    • dischargeability issues, 15.4.4
    • district court, 14.2.2
    • generally, 14.1
    • history, 14.2.1
    • in personam jurisdiction, 14.3.2.1
    • jury trials, 14.2.7
    • personal injury claims, 14.2.6
    • referral to bankruptcy court, 14.2.2
    • related proceedings, 14.2.1
    • withdrawal to district court, 14.2.5
    • wrongful death claims, 14.2.6
  • JURY TRIALS
    • bankruptcy court, 14.2.7
  • LAND INSTALLMENT SALES
    • as executory contract, 12.9.1
    • right to cure, see RIGHT TO CURE
  • LANDLORD BANKRUPTCIES
    • see also CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
    • eviction proceedings, counterclaims, 18.3.4
    • special problems, 18.8
  • LANDLORD-TENANT PROCEEDINGS
    • see EVICTIONS
  • LARCENY
    • see also FRAUD
    • discharge exception, 15.4.3.4
  • LATE CHARGE ABUSES
    • postpetition payments, 14.4.3.4.4
  • LEASES
    • see UNEXPIRED LEASES
  • LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
    • see also ACTIONS; CIVIL PROCEEDINGS; CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
    • automatic stay, see AUTOMATIC STAY
    • bankruptcy court, removal to, 14.4.1
    • remand of removed actions, 14.4.1.4
  • LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
    • see also CONSUMERS AS CREDITORS
    • automatic stay issues, 18.9.2
    • generally, 18.9.1
    • proof of claim, filing, 18.9.4
    • sales of assets, 18.9.3
    • third party and successor releases, 18.9.5
  • LIABILITIES
    • see also CONSUMER DEBTS
    • gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3, 5.3.4
  • LIENS
    • see also REPOSSESSIONS; SECURITY INTERESTS
    • allowed secured claims, validity, 11.2.1, 11.7
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
      • real property of repeat filers, 9.3.3.6, 9.4.6.5
    • avoidance, see AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
    • chapter 12 reorganizations
      • automatic dissolution, 17.4.3.4
      • avoidance, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5
      • replacement liens, 17.5.4.6
      • sales free and clear of, 17.4.10, 17.5.4.5
    • chapter 13, retention until payment or discharge, 11.6.1.3.3.1
    • discharge, effect on, 15.5.1.3
      • chapter 13, 4.8
    • enforcement after discharge, 3.6, 4.8, 15.5.3
    • exempt property, 3.5.1
    • government liens, see GOVERNMENT CLAIMS; STATUTORY LIENS
    • judicial liens, see JUDICIAL LIENS
    • listing as exempt in schedule, 7.3.7.2.3
    • listing in schedule, Sch. D, 7.3.7.3.2
    • modification of records after discharge, 8.9
    • redemption of personal property
      • generally, 8.3.7.1
      • statement of intentions, 7.3.11
    • searching to gather information, 5.3.4
    • statutory liens, see STATUTORY LIENS
    • truth in lending claims regarding, 14.4.4
    • turnover of property to trustee, see AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
    • valuation, 11.2.2.3
  • LIFE INSURANCE
    • see also INSURANCE
    • bankruptcy estate, inclusion, 8.2
    • federal exemption
      • accrued value, 10.2.2.9
      • dependent payments, 10.2.2.12
      • unmatured, 10.2.2.8
    • gathering information
      • reasonable expense, 5.3.3.4
      • value, 5.3.3.2
  • LIMITATIONS
    • see STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS; TIME LIMITS
  • LIQUIDATED DEBTS
    • determination, 12.2.3.2
  • LIQUIDATION
    • chapter 7, see CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS
    • chapter 11, see CHAPTER 11 LIQUIDATIONS
    • chapter 13, circumstances, 12.6.5
    • procedures, 2.2
  • LITIGATION AIDS
    • see PRACTICE AIDS
  • LITIGATING IN BANKRUPTCY COURT
    • see also BANKRUPTCY COURT
    • abstention, 14.5
    • advantages, 14.3
    • appeals, see APPEALS
    • class actions, 14.7
    • in forma pauperis, 14.6
    • involuntary bankruptcy cases, 14.8
    • jurisdiction, see JURISDICTION
    • jury trials, 14.2.7
    • procedure, 14.4
  • "LITTLE TUCKER ACT"
    • sovereign immunity, application, 14.3.2.2
  • LIVESTOCK
    • tools of the trade status, 10.2.2.7, 17.4.3.2
  • LOAN COMPANIES
    • see CREDITORS; LENDER BANKRUPTCIES
  • LONG-TERM DEBTS
    • see also CONSUMER DEBTS; MORTGAGES
    • chapter 13 plans, right to cure, 11.6.2, 15.4.1
  • LUXURY GOODS OR SERVICES
    • see also JEWELRY
    • ability to pay test, application, 12.3.4.4.5
    • defined, 12.3.4.4.5, 15.4.3.2.3.2
    • prebankruptcy transfers, 6.5.2.1, 15.4.3.2.3.2
  • MAILING MATRIX
    • filing requirements, 7.2.1, 15.4.3.3
    • form, 7.3.4
    • list of creditors
      • chapter 7, 3.2.2
      • chapter 13, 4.2.2
  • MAINTENANCE
    • see DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
  • MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
    • see also DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS; FAMILY LAW PROCEEDINGS
    • bankruptcy estate, inclusion, 8.2
    • constructive trusts, 18.5.2.2
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.5.3, 15.4.3.14
    • support payments distinguished, 15.4.3.5.3
  • MARRIED COUPLES
    • see JOINT BANKRUPTCIES; JOINT PROPERTY; SPOUSES; SUBSTANTIVE CONSOLIDATION
  • MATRIX (MAILING LABELS)
    • see MAILING MATRIX
  • MEANS TEST
    • see also ABUSE OF CHAPTER 7
    • ability to pay, effect, 13.4.7.4
    • data, Appx. I
    • formula, 13.4.5
      • application of formula, 13.4.6
      • deduction of IRS expense allowances, 13.4.5.2, Appx. I.2
      • deduction of other expenses, 13.4.5.3
    • Official Form 22A, Appx. D.2
    • presumption of abuse, 3.2.1.5, 13.4.6
    • procedures, 13.4.8
    • safe harbor
      • disabled veterans, 13.4.4
      • incomes below threshold, 13.4.3, 13.4.7.1
      • military reservists, 13.4.4
    • statement of current monthly income, 7.3.9, 13.4.3.2.1
    • timing of petition, 6.5.3.6
  • MEDICAL AIDS
    • see HEALTH AIDS
  • MEDICAL DEBTS
    • see also CONSUMER DEBTS
    • bankruptcy, effect, 6.2.2.4.2
    • further debt, anticipation, 6.5.3.1
  • MEDICAL EXPENSES
    • see HEALTH CARE EXPENSES
  • MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
    • adjournments, 10.3.4
    • advice to clients, 8.2, 8.4.1
    • attendance, 8.4.3
      • creditors seeking reaffirmation, 8.4.4
    • chapter 7 bankruptcies
      • after meeting, 3.5, 8.5
      • examination of debtor, 8.4.5
      • notice, 3.3
      • procedures, 3.4
    • chapter 12 bankruptcies, 17.2.5
    • chapter 13 bankruptcies
      • notice, 4.3
      • procedures, 4.4
    • claims, checking, 8.4.6
    • disputes, resolving, 8.4.3
      • chapter 7, 3.4
      • chapter 13, 4.4
    • document requirements, 8.4.2
      • chapter 7, 3.4
      • chapter 13, 4.4
    • examination of debtor by trustee, 8.4.3
      • chapter 7, 3.4, 8.4.5
      • chapter 13, 4.4
    • events prior or after meeting, 8.3
    • notice, Official Form 9, Appx. D.3
    • preparation for, 8.4.1
    • procedure at, 8.4.3
      • chapter 7, 3.4
      • chapter 13, 4.4
  • MILITARY PERSONNEL
    • credit counseling requirement, waiver, 3.2.1.4
    • financial management course, waiver, 8.3.3
    • means test exemption, 13.4.4
    • statement of military service, Appx. E.12
  • MILITARY RETENTION BONUSES
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.19
  • MINORS
    • bankruptcy filing
      • chapter 7, 3.2.1.1
      • chapter 13, 4.2.1.1
  • MOBILE HOMES
    • chapter 13 cramdown exemption, application, 11.6.1.2.2.6
    • real or personal property, 7.3.7.2.1
  • MODIFICATION
    • chapter 12 plans, see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
    • chapter 13 plans, see CHAPTER 13 PLANS
    • cure, status as, 11.6.1.2.3
    • secured claims, see CRAMDOWN
    • voluntary loan modification programs, 11.6.1.5
  • MONEY ORDER COMPANIES
    • bankruptcy, effect on consumers, 18.5.2.1
  • MONITORING FEES
    • challenging, 14.4.3.4.5
  • MORTGAGES
    • see also LIENS; SECURITY INTERESTS
    • bankrupt lenders, 18.9
    • bankruptcy monitoring fees, 14.4.3.4.5
    • chapter 13 cramdown, application, 11.6.1
    • chapter 13 right to cure, 11.6.2
    • escrow overcharges, 14.4.3.4.2
    • foreclosures, see FORECLOSURES
    • holder of mortgage, determination, 9.7.3.1.1
    • means test deductions, 13.4.5.2.5, 13.4.5.3.2
    • modification, 11.6.1.2, 11.6.1.5
    • objecting to overcharges, 14.4.3.4
    • postpetition payments, 8.7.3
    • proof of claim, requirements, 14.4.3.4.1, 14.4.3.4.2, 14.4.3.5
    • refinancing during chapter 13, 12.6.6
    • Rule 3001 requirements, 14.4.3.4.2, 14.4.3.5
    • Rule 3002.1 requirements, 11.6.2.8.2, 14.4.3.4.1, 14.4.3.4.6
      • final cure payment, 11.6.2.8.2.5
      • payment changes, 8.7.3, 11.6.2.8.2.2
      • postpetitition fees, 11.6.2.8.2.3, 11.6.2.8.2.4
    • securitized mortgages, 9.7.3.1.1, 14.4.3.4.7
    • servicer abuses, 14.4.3.4, 16.5.5
    • spreader clauses, 15.5.3
    • undisclosed fees, 14.4.3.4.6
  • MOTOR VEHICLES
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.1, 10.2.2.3
    • impaired driving debts, 15.4.3.9
    • means test deductions
      • expenses, 13.4.5.2.4
      • loan payments, 13.4.5.3.2
    • purchase money security interests, chapter 13 treatment, 6.5.3.5, 11.6.1.4, 12.8.2.2
    • right of redemption, use, 11.5.5
    • reaffirmation agreements, 11.4.2.8, 11.5.4
    • "retain and pay" option, 11.4.2.8
    • snowmobiles, status, 15.4.3.9
    • title pawn transactions, 11.9
    • valuation, 5.3.4, 11.2.2.3.2
  • MUTUAL DEBTS
    • setoffs, 10.4.2.6.7
  • NATIONAL BANKRUPTCY REVIEW COMMISSION
    • establishment, 1.1.2.4
  • NATIONAL CONSUMER LAW CENTER (NCLC)
    • Bankruptcy Basics, guide for attorneys, 1.3.4.2
    • bankruptcy treatise, 1.2, 1.3
    • consulting service, 1.3.4.2
    • initial forms software, Appx. D.1.2
    • NCLC Guide to Surviving Debt, 6.1.2
  • NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT 2000
    • selected provisions, Appx. A.4.7
  • NON-ATTORNEYS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS; DEBT RELIEF AGENCIES
    • fees to, disclosure, 16.3.2, 16.3.3, 16.6
    • role in bankruptcy case, 5.1.2, 16.6
    • unauthorized practice of law, 16.6
  • NON-CORE PROCEEDINGS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
    • core proceedings, distinction, 14.2.4.2, 14.2.4.3
    • procedures, 14.2.4.4
  • NON-PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
    • see also SECURITY INTERESTS
    • avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
  • NOTICE
    • automatic stay
      • effective notice, 9.6.3.3
      • giving notice, 8.3.1, 9.5, 9.6.3.1
      • requirements, 9.6.3.2
    • automatic turnover, 9.9.3
    • bankruptcy case, Official Form 9, Appx. D.3
    • bankruptcy petition preparers to debtor, 16.6
      • Official Form 19B, Appx. D.3
    • clerk of bankruptcy court, available relief, 7.3.6
      • form, Appx. E.2
    • creditors, to, 14.3.2.1, 15.4.3.3
      • effective notice, 9.6.3.3, 9.9.3
      • mailing label matrix, see MATRIX (MAILING LABELS)
      • Official Form 9, Appx. D.3
      • reasonable efforts, 18.4.1
    • debt relief agencies, requirements, 16.8.3
    • motion or objection, Official Form 20A, Appx. D.3
    • objection to claim, Official Form 20B, Appx. D.3
    • removal to bankruptcy court, 14.4.1.2
  • OBJECTIONS
    • barred claims, 14.4.3.2
    • chapter 7, discharge, 15.2
    • chapter 7, time limits, 3.3
    • chapter 13, time limits, 4.3
    • chapter 13 plans, 4.4, 8.6, 11.6.1.3.3.7, 12.3.4.2
    • claims by creditors, 3.5.3, 4.4, 8.3.9, 8.4.6, 14.3.2.4, 14.4.3
      • Official Form 20B, Appx. D.3
    • exemptions claimed, 8.5, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
    • failure to raise, effect, 14.4.3.1
    • inadequate documentation, 14.4.3.4.7, 14.4.3.5
    • mortgage overcharges, 14.4.3.4
    • other objections, Official Form 20A, Appx. D.3
    • prepetition settlement attempts, based on, 14.4.3.6
    • recoupment claims, raising as, 14.3.2.4
    • secured claims, 11.2.2.1, 11.6.1.3.3.5
    • unenforceable claims, 14.4.3.3
  • OFFICIAL BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • amendments to, 1.4.3, 1.4.4.1
    • annotations, Appx. D.2
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, information on, 16.6
    • chapter 12, application, 17.2.3.1
    • commercial forms, 7.1.2
    • completing, 1.3.2, 7.3.1, Appx. D.1
    • computer software, 7.1.3, 7.3.1, Appx. D.1.2
    • general principles, 7.1.1
    • initial forms
      • amendments to, 8.3.2
      • chapter 7, 3.2.2
      • chapter 13, 4.2.2
      • preparing, 7.3
      • sample forms, Appx. D.2
    • obtaining, 1.4.3, 5.1.3, 7.1.2
    • Official Form 1 (voluntary petition), 7.3.2
      • see also BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
      • annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
    • Official Form 3A (filing fee by installment), 7.2.1
      • annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
    • Official Form 3B (waiver of filing fee), 7.3.13.4
      • annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
    • Official Form 6 (schedules), 7.3.7
      • see also SCHEDULES
      • annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
    • Official Form 7 (financial affairs), 7.3.8
      • see also STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
      • annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
    • Official Form 8 (intentions), 7.3.11
      • see also STATEMENT OF INTENTION
      • annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
    • Official Form 21 (Social Security number), 7.3.3
      • see also STATEMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER
      • annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
    • Official Form 22 (current monthly income), 7.3.9
      • see also STATEMENT OF CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
      • annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
    • Official Form 23 (financial management course), 8.3.3
      • annotations and completed form, Appx. D.2
    • other Official Forms, Appx. D.3
    • reproducible forms, 1.4.3, 7.1.2, Appx. D, Appx. E
    • sample completed forms, Appx. D.2
    • substantial compliance, 1.4.3, 7.3.1
      • computer programs, 7.1.3
      • permitted alterations, Appx. D.1.3
      • precise compliance not necessary, 7.3.1
  • OMBUDSMAN
    • consumer privacy ombudsman, 18.10
    • patient care ombudsman, 18.10
  • PACER SYSTEM
    • bankruptcy court dockets, access, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
    • fee schedule, Appx. C.4
  • PAPERS
    • see BANKRUPTCY FORMS
  • PARALEGALS
    • see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS; NON-ATTORNEYS
  • PARKING TICKETS
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.7
  • PARTNERSHIPS
    • chapter 12 eligibility, 17.2.2.1, 17.2.2.4.5
    • chapter 13 eligibility, 12.2.2
    • discharges, 15.2.2.1, 18.5.4.4
  • PATIENT CARE OMBUDSMAN
    • health care business bankruptcies, 18.10
  • PAUPERIS
    • see IN FORMA PAUPERIS
  • PAWNED PERSONAL PROPERTY
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
    • bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.4
  • PAYMENT ADVICES
    • filing, 7.3.10
  • PAYMENT PLANS
    • see CHAPTER 12 PLANS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN); CHAPTER 13 PLANS
  • PENALTIES
    • see FINES AND PENALTIES
  • PENSIONS
    • bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.2, 10.2.2.11
    • contributions, priority claim, 18.7.12.2
    • ERISA, see ERISA PENSION PLANS
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.13
    • IRAs, see INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS (IRAs)
    • listing in schedules, 7.3.7.2.2
    • loans from debtor's plan, repayment
      • automatic stay exemption, 9.4.6.4
      • dischargeability, 15.4.3.17
      • disposable income exclusion, 12.3.4.4.2.4
    • monthly income, exemption or inclusion, 13.4.3.2.7
    • Qualified Domestic Relations Order, 15.4.3.5.3
    • withdrawals, income treatment, 13.4.3.2.6
  • PERSONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COURSE
    • advice to clients, 8.2
    • approved courses, 8.3.3
    • certificate of completion, filing
      • chapter 7, 15.2.2.11
      • chapter 13, 8.8.1
      • Official Form 23, Appx. D.2
      • time limits, 8.3.3
    • cost of course, 6.2.2.6
    • discharge prerequisite, 8.3.3, 15.2.2.11
      • chapter 7, 3.2.1.3, 3.6
      • chapter 13, 4.8
    • requirements, 8.3.3
  • PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS
    • bankruptcy court
      • jurisdiction, 14.2.6
      • mandatory abstention, application, 14.5.2
    • dischargeability
      • drunk driving, 15.4.3.9
      • generally, 15.4.3.6
  • PERSONAL PROPERTY
    • see also PROPERTY
    • exempt, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
    • household goods, see HOUSEHOLD GOODS
    • leases
      • adequate protection, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
      • chapter 7, assumption or rejection, 8.3.7.2, 12.9.5
      • chapter 13, assumption or rejection, 12.9
      • chapter 13 payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.3
      • proof of insurance, 8.3.13, 12.8.4
      • statement of intention, 7.3.11, 11.4
    • listing in schedule, Sch. B, 7.3.7.2.2
    • motor vehicles, see MOTOR VEHICLES
    • non-purchase money liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
    • purchase money security interests, see PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
    • right of redemption, 8.3.7.1
      • see also RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
    • secured, see COLLATERAL
    • valuation, 7.3.7.2.2, 11.2.2.3.3
      • converted cases, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
      • date, 11.2.2.2.2
      • replacement value, 11.2.2.3.1
  • PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVES
    • bankruptcy estate, representing, 3.2.1.1
    • bankruptcy petitions, filing, 3.2.1.1
  • PETITION PREPARERS
    • see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS
  • PETITIONS IN BANKRUPTCY
    • see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
  • PLEADINGS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G
      • computer programs, 7.1.3
      • NCLC companion website, 1.3.2, 5.1.3, Appx. M
  • POSSESSION
    • creditor remedies, see RECLAMATION OF PROPERTY; REPOSSESSION
    • debtor-in-possession, see DEBTOR-IN-POSSESSION (DIP)
    • exempt property, 3.5, 10.1.2
    • landlords, prepetition judgment
      • chapter 13 plan confirmation, effect, 12.9.2
      • stay exemption, 9.4.6.6.2, 9.7.3.2.4
    • property of the estate
      • chapter 12 plans, 17.4.2
      • chapter 13 plans, 12.8.1
      • retention by debtor, 8.3.11
    • property turned over to trustee, 9.9.4
  • POSTPETITION CLAIMS
    • chapter 13, conversion from, 4.7.4, 13.7.2
    • consumers as creditors, 18.5.3
    • discharge, 4.6, 8.7.2
      • converted cases, 13.7.3
    • domestic support obligations, 12.3.6.3
    • utilities, 9.8.2.2.4
  • POSTPETITION FEES
    • Rule 3002.1
      • dispute procedure, 11.6.2.8.2.4
      • notice requirements, 11.6.2.8.2.3
      • sanctions, 11.6.2.8.2.6
  • POSTPETITION TRANSACTIONS
    • chapter 7 conversion, inclusion, 4.7.4, 13.7.2
      • utility usage, 9.8.2.2.4
    • chapter 12 dispositions, tax liability, 17.5.5.4
    • chapter 13 plans
      • modification, 4.6, 8.7.2
      • mortgage payments, 8.7.3
  • POSTPETITION TRANSFERS
    • see also AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
    • automatic stay, application, 9.4.6.7
    • avoidance, 10.4.2.6.6, 10.4.2.9
    • check, by, date of transfer, 10.4.2.6.6
    • definition of transfer, 9.4.6.7, 10.4.2.6.6
    • religious and charitable donations, 1.1.2.6, 12.3.4.4.5
    • setoffs, 10.4.2.6.7
  • POWER OF ATTORNEY
    • bankruptcy filing by, 3.2.1.1
  • PRACTICE AIDS
    • see also RESEARCH AIDS; WEB RESOURCES
    • advice after discharge, 8.9
    • advice after papers filed, 8.2
    • attorney fees, see ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
    • automatic stay litigation
      • other tactics, 9.7.3.3.2
      • stays pending appeal, 9.7.3.3.3
      • valuation problems, 9.7.3.3.1
    • bankruptcy court advantages, 14.3
    • best practices, 5.1.3, Appx. H.5, Appx. H.7
    • chapter 7 fee waiver, 14.6.2.1, Appx. H.6
    • chapter 12 plans
      • direct payments, 17.5.7.3
      • feasibility, 17.5.7.2.2
      • provisions, 17.5.9
    • chapter 13 plans
      • successive filings, 12.10.3
      • unexpired leases or executory contracts, 12.9.4
    • client handouts, Appx. K
    • client questionnaire, 5.3.2, Appx. F
    • computerization, 7.1.3, Appx. D.1.2
    • counseling the debtor, 6
      • see also COUNSELING THE CONSUMER DEBTOR
      • advantages and disadvantages of bankruptcy, 6.2
      • choosing type of bankruptcy, 6.3
      • exemption planning, 6.5.2.2
      • explaining bankruptcy, 6.1.2, Appx. K
      • explaining options 6.1.1
      • prebankruptcy transfers, 6.5.2.1, 6.5.3.2
      • spousal filing, 6.4
      • timing, 6.5
      • using credit wisely, Appx. K.4
    • date calculator, Appx. H.1
    • declaration concerning schedules, 7.3.7.7
    • delay of petition as tactic, 6.5.3.3
    • discharge orders, retention, 8.8.1
    • dischargeability complaints, 15.4.3.2.4
    • division of labor, 5.1.3
    • document production requests, Appx. H.7
    • electronic case filing, Appx. D.1.4
    • exemption claims, 10.3
    • exemption planning, 6.5.2.2, 10.4.1
    • facts and information, 5
      • frequently missed info, 5.3.3
      • full and accurate, need for, 5.4
      • importance of getting, 5.2
      • methods of gathering, 5.3
      • other sources, 5.3.4
      • questionnaire, 5.3.2, Appx. F
      • web resources, 5.3.4
    • involuntary bankruptcies, generally, 14.8
    • landlord bankruptcy
      • maintaining services, 18.8.2
      • preventing abandonment, 18.8.2.2
      • tenant ownership, 18.8.3
    • litigation advantages of bankruptcy, 6.2.1.6
    • meeting of creditors, 8.4
    • multiple cases, 7.2.3
    • NCLC Bankruptcy Basics, 1.3.4.2
    • NCLC bankruptcy treatise, using, 1.3, 5.1.1, 5.1.3
    • NCLC companion website, 1.3.2, 5.1.3, Appx. M
    • NCLC consulting service, 1.3.4.2
    • NCLC Guide to Surviving Debt, 6.1.2
    • NCLC web-based text search feature, 1.3.3, Appx. M.6
    • non-attorneys, role, 5.1.2, 5.1.3
    • preparing and filing papers, 7
      • fees, 7.2.1
      • forms, 7.2.1, 7.3
      • generally, 7.1
      • signing and verification, 7.4
      • time considerations, 7.2
    • reaffirmation agreements, 15.5.2.6
    • sample pleadings and forms, Appx. G
      • NCLC companion website, 1.3.2, 5.1.3, Appx. M
    • secured property, retention, 11.4.2.8, 11.5.4
    • subsequent to filing, 8
      • administration of chapter 13 plans, 8.7
      • advice to clients, 8.2
      • after discharge, 8.9
      • after meeting of creditors, 8.5, 8.6
      • confirmation hearings, 8.6
      • discharge and discharge hearing, 8.8
      • events prior to meeting of creditors, 8.3
      • generally, 8.1
      • meeting of creditors, 8.4
    • tax information, interim guidance, Appx. H.3
    • tax returns or transcripts, obtaining, Appx. H.2
    • timing the petition, 6.5
    • United States Trustee Program, Appx. H.4
    • websites, helpful, Appx. L
  • PREBANKRUPTCY TRANSFERS
    • see also AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
    • avoidance by debtor
      • consumer as creditor, chapter 11, 18.7.6
      • exempt property, principles, 10.4.2.1
      • farmers, 17.4.3.5
      • judicial liens, 10.4.2.3
      • non-purchase money security interests, 10.4.2.4
      • pre-Code liens, 10.4.2.10
      • preferences, 10.4.2.6.4.3
      • procedures, 8.3.6, 10.4.2.2
      • property recovered by trustee, 10.4.2.5
      • trustee's powers, use, 10.4.2.6, 10.4.2.7
    • avoidance by trustee
      • fraudulent transfers, 10.4.2.6.5
      • liens securing penalties, 10.4.2.6.8
      • preferences, 10.4.2.6.4.1, 10.4.2.6.4.2
      • setoffs, 10.4.2.6.7
      • statutory liens, 10.4.2.6.3
      • strong-arm clause, 10.4.2.6.2
      • voluntary transfers, 10.4.2.6.1
    • avoided transfers, preservation, 10.4.2.9
    • cash advances, 6.5.2.1
    • charitable donations, 1.1.2.6, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
    • check, by, date of transfer, 10.4.2.6.6
    • definition of transfer, 10.4.2.1
    • discharge, denial, 15.2.2.2
    • exempt property, avoidance, 8.3.6
    • exemption planning, 6.5.2.2
    • fraudulent conveyances, 6.5.2.1
    • luxury goods or services, 6.5.2.1
    • preferences, 6.5.2.1, 6.5.3.2
  • PREFERENCES
    • attorney fees paid in advance, status, 16.2.3
    • avoidance
      • chapter 11, 18.7.6
      • chapter 12, 17.4.3.5.3
      • exceptions, 10.4.2.6.4.2
      • generally, 10.4.2.6.4.1
      • prebankruptcy, 6.5.2.1, 6.5.3.2
    • consumers as creditors, 18.2.1
    • exceptions, 10.4.2.6.4.2
    • security interests, status, 10.4.2.6.4.2, 10.4.2.6.4.3
  • PRESUMPTION OF ABUSE
    • see also ABUSE OF CHAPTER 7
    • avoiding through chapter 13, 6.3.3
    • generally, 3.2.1.5, 13.4.6.1
    • incomes below threshold, 13.4.3, 13.4.7.1
    • means test, see MEANS TEST
    • rebutting, 13.4.6.2
    • statement of current monthly income, 7.3.9, 13.4.3.2.1
      • determining current monthly income, 13.4.3.2
      • median income test, 13.4.3.3
    • timing considerations, 6.5.3.6
  • PRINCIPAL RESIDENCE
    • see also HOMESTEAD EXEMPTION; MORTGAGES
    • capital gains exemption, 11.3.4
    • chapter 13 cramdown, exemption, 11.6.1.2
    • defined, 11.6.1.2.2.6
    • right to cure default, 11.6.1.1, 11.6.1.2.3, 11.6.2
  • PRIOR BANKRUPTCIES
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.6.5, 9.7.3.1.5
    • chapter 7, 3.2.1.2, 6.2.2.8.2, 15.2.2.8, 15.2.2.9
    • chapter 12, 17.4.4.3
    • chapter 13, 4.2.1.4, 6.2.2.8.2, 12.10, 15.2.2.9
    • information gathering, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
    • in rem orders, 9.4.6.5.2, 9.7.3.1.5
    • prior discharges, effect, 15.2.2.8, 15.2.2.9, 15.4.3.10
  • PRIORITY UNSECURED CREDITORS
    • see also CREDITORS; UNSECURED CREDITORS
    • administrative expenses, 12.3.4.4.4
    • attorneys, fees, 16.4.1
    • categories, 7.3.7.3.3
    • chapter 12 plans
      • classification, 17.5.6.3
      • treatment, 17.5.5.4
    • chapter 13 plans, payment, 7.3.12.3, 7.3.12.5, 12.3.6
    • consumers as, 18.5.5, 18.7.12.2, 18.9.4
    • distribution to, 3.5.4
    • domestic support obligations, 17.5.8
    • employees, 18.7.12.2
    • listing in schedule, Sch. E, 7.3.7.3.3
    • means test deductions, 13.4.5.3.3
    • tax claims, 12.3.6.1, 15.4.3.1.2
  • PRISONER LITIGATION
    • costs and fees, dischargeability, 15.4.3.16
  • PRIVACY ISSUES
    • business bankruptcies, 18.10
    • income tax returns, 8.3.4.3
      • disclosure by trustee, 8.3.4.1
  • PROBATE PROCEEDINGS
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
  • PROCEEDINGS IN BANKRUPTCY
    • see BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
  • PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS
    • best practices, Appx. H.7
    • meeting of creditors, 8.4.2
      • chapter 7, 3.4
      • chapter 13, 4.4
      • identification, 8.4.2, 8.4.3
  • PROOF OF CLAIM
    • see also CLAIMS BY CREDITORS
    • allowing, chapter 7, 3.5.3
    • burden of proof, 11.2.2.3.2, 14.4.3.3
    • consumers as creditors
      • class claims, 18.4.2
      • individual consumers, 18.4.1
      • lender bankruptcies, 18.9.4
      • trust funds, 18.5.2.1
    • debt buyers, 14.4.3.5
    • false information, 16.5.5.1, 16.5.5.2
    • filing, time, 3.3, 4.4, 14.4.3.2, 15.4.3.3
    • filing by debtor, 8.4.6
    • government claims, 14.4.3.2
    • inadequate documentation, 14.4.3.4.7, 14.4.3.5
    • mortgage overcharges, 14.4.3.4
    • Official Form 10, Appx. D.3
    • reasonable inquiry prior to, 16.5.5.1
    • securitized debt, 14.4.3.4.7, 14.4.3.5
  • PROPERTY
    • see also ASSETS; COLLATERAL; PERSONAL PROPERTY; REAL PROPERTY
    • abandonment by trustee, see ABANDONMENT OF PROPERTY
    • after filing, advice to clients, 8.2
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3, 9.7.3.2.3
    • bankruptcy estate, see BANKRUPTCY ESTATE
    • chapter 13
      • adequate protection, 12.8.2
      • continued use, 12.8.1
    • discharge protections, 15.5.1.2
    • disposition by trustee, 11.3.4
    • exempt, see EXEMPT PROPERTY
    • gathering information, frequently missed, 5.3.3.2
    • harmful property, indicating on petition, 7.3.2
    • incidental property, defined, 11.6.1.2.2.4
    • joint, see JOINT PROPERTY
    • liquidation, see LIQUIDATION
    • listing in schedules, 7.3.7.2
    • loss in bankruptcy, 6.2.2.2
    • possession, see POSSESSION
    • protection from unsecured creditors, 6.2.1.2
    • reclamation, see RECLAMATION OF PROPERTY
    • recovery after transfer avoidance, 10.4.2.8
    • right of redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
    • transfers, see POSTPETITION TRANSFERS; PREBANKRUPTCY TRANSFERS
    • turnover to trustee, see AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
    • valuation, see VALUATION
    • willful and malicious injury, dischargeability, 15.4.3.6
  • PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
    • see MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
  • PUBLIC BENEFITS
    • see also BENEFITS REPLACING WAGES; FARM BENEFITS; SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS; WELFARE BENEFITS
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.4
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
    • overpayments, dischargeability, 15.4.3.2.3.3
  • PUBLIC UTILITIES
    • see UTILITY SERVICES
  • PUNITIVE DAMAGES
    • see also DAMAGES
    • automatic stay violations, 9.6.2
      • notice requirements, 9.6.3.3
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.6, 18.5.4.2.1
  • PURCHASE AND SALE AGREEMENTS
    • pending, listing in schedule, 7.3.7.4
  • PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
    • see also SECURED CREDITORS; SECURITY INTERESTS
    • chapter 13 filing
      • adequate protection payments, 4.3, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
      • proof of insurance, 8.3.13, 12.8.4
      • recent purchases, 11.6.1.4
      • timing considerations, 6.5.3.5
  • QUALIFIED EDUCATION LOANS
    • see also STUDENT LOANS
    • defined, 15.4.3.8.1
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.8.1
  • REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENTS
    • see also CONSUMER DEBTS
    • agreement, necessity, 15.5.2.1
    • attorneys, validation, 15.5.2.4, 15.5.2.7
    • best interests test, 15.5.2.6
    • consequences, 8.8.2
    • court approval, 8.8.2, 8.8.3, 15.5.2.4, 15.5.2.6
      • chapter 7, 3.6
      • chapter 13, 4.8
    • debtors not represented by attorneys, 3.6, 8.4.4, 8.8.1, 15.5.2.4
    • disadvantages, 8.8.2
    • disclosure requirements, 15.5.2.2, 15.5.2.5
    • factors to be considered, 15.5.2.7
    • form, 15.5.2.3, 15.5.2.4, Appx. E.10
      • Official Form, Appx. D.3
    • invalid agreements, 15.5.2.5
    • meeting of creditors, 8.4.4
    • payments, acceptance, 15.5.2.5
    • prepetition legal fees, 16.2.3
    • pressure from creditors, 8.4.4, 15.5.2.1, 15.5.2.5
    • protective provisions, 15.5.2.4
    • redemption as alternative, 11.5.5, 15.5.2.5
    • requirements, 15.5.2
    • secured debts, 11.5.4
    • statement of intention, 3.5, 7.3.11
    • student loans, 15.5.5.2
    • undue hardship
      • presumption, 15.5.2.4
      • test, 15.5.2.6
  • REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (RESPA)
    • mortgage errors
      • annual escrow account review, 14.4.3.4.2
      • informal discovery, 14.4.3.4.1
  • REAL PROPERTY
    • see also PROPERTY
    • chapter 13 cramdown
      • application, 11.6.1.2.1
      • right to cure default, 11.6.2
    • chapter 13, sales under, 12.6.5
    • in rem orders, 9.4.6.5.2, 9.7.3.1.5
    • leasehold interests, see UNEXPIRED LEASES
    • lien enforcement, automatic stay exception, 9.3.3.6, 9.4.6.5
    • listing in schedule, Sch. A, 7.3.7.2.1
    • pending sale agreements, listing in schedule, 7.3.7.4
    • postpetition transfers, 10.4.2.6.6
    • security interests, see MORTGAGES
    • valuation, 5.3.4, 11.2.2.3.3
      • date, 11.2.2.2.2
      • timing of petition, 6.5.3.8
  • RECLAMATION OF PROPERTY
    • see also REPOSSESSION
    • complaints seeking, 8.3.10
    • family farmer plans, provision in, 17.5.9
    • postpetition actions by secured creditors, 11.3.2
  • RECORDS
    • claims by creditors, inadequate documentation, 14.4.3.5
    • failure to keep, denial of discharge, 15.2.2.3
  • RECOUPMENT CLAIMS
    • raising, 14.3.2.4
    • setoffs, effect, 10.4.2.6.7
  • REDEMPTION OF PROPERTY
    • see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
  • REFINANCING
    • chapter 13 cases, during, 12.6.6
  • RELIEF FROM STAY
    • see AUTOMATIC STAY
  • RELIGIOUS LIBERTY AND CHARITABLE DONATION PROTECTION ACT
    • see also CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS
    • donations after bankruptcy, 1.1.2.6, 12.3.4.4.5
    • protection for donations, 1.1.2.6, 10.4.2.6.2, 10.4.2.6.5
  • RENT-TO-OWN TRANSACTIONS
    • bankruptcy, effect, 11.8
    • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2, 7.3.7.3.2, 7.3.7.4
  • REORGANIZATIONS
    • chapter 11, see CHAPTER 11 REORGANIZATIONS
    • chapter 12, see CHAPTER 12 REORGANIZATIONS (FAMILY FARMERS AND FISHERMEN)
    • chapter 13, see CHAPTER 13 REORGANIZATIONS
    • term of art, 2.2
  • REPOSSESSION
    • see also POSSESSION; RECLAMATION OF PROPERTY
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.3
    • automatic turnover, application, 9.9.2
    • chapter 13 filing to prevent, 6.3.3
    • discharge, after, validity, 15.5.3
    • personal property, threats, 8.4.3
    • postpetition by secured creditors, 11.3.2, 11.4.2.8, 11.5.4
    • preference, status as, 10.4.2.6.4.3
  • RES JUDICATA
    • automatic stay litigation, application, 9.7.3.1.5
    • chapter 12 plans, provisions minimizing, 17.5.9
    • chapter 13 plans, confirmation as, 9.7.3.2.2, 12.7, 12.11
    • claims, failure to object, effect, 14.4.3.1
    • dischargeability issues, 15.4.2, 15.4.3.20, 15.4.4
  • RESEARCH AIDS
    • see also PRACTICE AIDS
    • bibliography, Bibliography
    • citator, 1.5.6
    • computer-assisted research, 1.5.7
      • NCLC companion website, 1.3.2, 5.1.3, Appx. M
      • NCLC web-based text searches, 1.3.3, Appx. M.6
    • information gathering, 5.3.4
    • legislative history, 1.5.1
    • periodicals, 1.5.5
    • reporting services, 1.5.4
    • rules advisory committee notes, 1.5.2
    • sources of law, 1.4
    • treatises and texts, 1.5.3
      • NCLC Guide to Surviving Debt, 6.1.2
      • NCLC treatises, 1.3.2, 1.3.4
  • RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
    • see also EVICTIONS; UNEXPIRED LEASES
    • automatic stay, application, 9.4.6.6, 9.7.3.2.4
    • bankruptcy of landlord
      • liability of secured creditors, 18.5.7
      • maintaining services, 18.5.7, 18.8.2
      • preventing evictions, 18.8.4
      • security deposits, 18.8.5
      • tenant ownership, 18.8.3
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.3
    • homestead exemption, 10.2.2.6
    • judgment for possession, prepetition
      • chapter 13 plan confirmation, effect, 12.9.2
      • indication on petition, 7.3.2
      • stay exemption, 9.4.6.6.2, 9.7.3.2.4
    • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.4
  • RESTITUTION DEBTS
    • see also DAMAGES; FINES AND PENALTIES
    • automatic stay, 9.4.6.2
    • avoidance as preference, 10.4.2.6.4.3
    • criminal proceedings, status, 9.4.6.2, 15.5.1.1
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.5
    • dischargeability, 15.4.1, 15.4.3.6, 15.4.3.7, 15.4.3.12, 15.5.1.1
  • RETIREMENT FUNDS
    • see PENSIONS
  • RETURNS
    • defined, 15.4.3.1.1
    • tax returns, see TAX RETURNS
  • RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
    • agreements regarding, court review, 8.3.7.1, 11.5.5, 15.5.2.5
    • automatic stay, effect, 8.3.7.1, 9.4.3
    • chapter 12
      • plan provisions, 17.5.9
      • rights, 17.4.3.5.5
    • enforcement, 8.3.7.1
    • limits on right, 11.5.2
    • listing property as exempt, 7.3.7.2.3
    • payment in installments, 11.5.3, 11.5.4
    • personal property, 8.3.7.1
    • purpose, 11.5.1
    • reaffirmation alternative, 11.5.5, 15.5.2.5
    • statement of intention, 7.3.11
    • stipulated settlements, 8.3.7.1
    • time limits, 8.3.7.1
    • uses in practice, 11.5.5
  • RIGHT TO CURE
    • amount required, 11.6.2.7
    • chapter 12, 17.4.3.5.5, 17.5.4.2
    • chapter 13, 11.6.2
    • current payments outside plan, 11.6.2.6
    • effect of cure, 11.6.2.8.1
    • effectuating cure, 11.6.2.8.2, 14.4.3.4.6
    • executory contracts, 12.9.2
    • final payment, notice, 11.6.2.8.2.5
    • interest on arrears, 11.6.2.7.2
    • land installment sales, 11.6.2
    • long-term debts, 11.6.2, 15.4.1
    • modification status, 11.6.1.2.3
    • mortgages after acceleration, 11.6.2.2, 11.6.2.3
    • mortgages maturing before end of plan, 11.6.2.3
    • principal residence, 11.6.1.2.3, 11.6.2
    • reasonable time, 11.6.2.5
    • Rule 3002.1, use, 11.6.2.8.2, 14.4.3.4.6
    • unexpired leases, 12.9.2
  • RULE 2004 EXAMINATIONS
    • see also FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • circumstances, 8.3.15.2
    • consumers as creditors, 18.5.8
    • failure to conduct, effect, 8.3.15.2
    • scope, 8.3.15.2
    • subpoena, Appx. E.7.1
  • RULE 3001
    • see also FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • proof of claim, documentation, 14.4.3.5
      • escrow account statement, 14.4.3.4.2
    • sanctions, 16.5.5.2
  • RULE 3002.1
    • see also FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • background, 14.4.3.4.6
    • fee dispute procedure, 11.6.2.8.2.4
    • major mortgage servicers, compliance settlement, 11.6.2.8.2.7
    • notice of postpetition fees, 8.7.3, 11.6.2.8.2.3
    • notice of final cure payment, 11.6.2.8.2.5
    • notice of payment change, 8.7.3, 11.6.2.8.2.2
    • overview, 11.6.2.8.2.1
    • sanctions, 11.6.2.8.2.6, 14.4.3.4.1, 16.5.5.2
  • RULE 9011
    • see also FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • attorney certifications, 16.7.2.3, 16.7.2.4
    • overview, 16.7.1
    • sanctions
      • attorneys, against, 16.7.2.2
      • creditors, against, 16.5.5.1
      • debtors, against, 16.7.2.1
  • RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
    • see FEDERAL RULES OF BANKRUPTCY PROCEDURE
  • SCHEDULES
    • see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • amending, 8.3.2
    • annotations, Appx. D.2
    • attorney certification, 16.7.2.4
    • audits, 8.3.15.1
    • chapter 12, 17.2.3.1
    • codebtors, Sch. H, 7.3.7.5
    • creditor information, Sch. D/-/Sch. F, 7.3.7.3
    • debtor's property, Sch. A/-/Sch. C, 7.3.7.2
    • declaration of truth, 7.3.7.7
    • executory contracts, Sch. G, 7.3.7.4
    • exempt property, Sch. C, 7.3.7.2.3
    • expenses, Sch. J, 7.3.7.6
    • failure to file, dismissal of case, 13.3.1, 13.3.2
    • generally, 7.3.7
    • income, Sch. I, 7.3.7.6
    • Official Form 6, 7.3.7, Appx. D.2
    • overview, 7.3.7.1
    • personal property, Sch. B, 7.3.7.2.2
    • priority debts, Sch. E, 7.3.7.3.3
    • real property, Sch. A, 7.3.7.2.1
    • sample completed schedules, Appx. D.2
    • secured debts, Sch. D, 7.3.7.3.2
    • summary of schedules, 7.3.7.8
    • unexpired leases, Sch. G, 7.3.7.4
    • unsecured debts, Sch. F, 7.3.7.3.4
  • SECTION 341(a) MEETING OF CREDITORS
    • see MEETING OF CREDITORS (SECTION 341(a))
  • SECURED CLAIMS
    • see ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS
  • SECURED CREDITORS
    • see also CREDITORS; SECURITY INTERESTS
    • allowed secured claims, see ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS
    • avoidance of liens and transfers, 8.3.6, 10.4.2
    • bankruptcy clauses, validity, 11.5.4, 15.5.3
    • chapter 7 distribution, 3.5.4
    • chapter 12 reorganizations
      • adequate protection, 17.4.4.3, 17.4.11
      • classification, 17.5.6.4
      • good faith test, 17.5.7.1
      • treatment, 17.5.4
    • chapter 13 cramdown
      • adequate protection, 4.3, 11.6.1.3.3.2
      • limits on, 11.6.1.2
      • modification of rights, 11.6.1
      • payment, 7.3.12.3, 7.3.12.5
      • standards under plan, 11.6.1.3
    • dealing with
      • bankruptcy tools, 6.2.1.3
      • generally, 11.1
    • determination, 12.2.3.1
    • gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3
    • listing in schedule, Sch. D, 7.3.7.3.2
    • postpetition actions
      • abandonment by trustee, 11.3.3
      • automatic stay, relief, 9.7
      • cash collateral, holding, 11.3.5
      • disposition by trustee, 11.3.4
      • reclamation of property, 11.3.2
    • redemption by debtor, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
    • statement of debtor's intentions, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
  • SECURED DEBTS
    • see ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS; SECURITY INTERESTS
  • SECURED PROPERTY
    • see COLLATERAL
  • SECURITIES VIOLATIONS
    • debts arising from, dischargeability, 15.4.3.18
  • SECURITIZED LOANS
    • automatic stay relief, 9.7.3.1.1
    • lender bankruptcy, effect, 18.9.5
    • proof of claim, 14.4.3.4.7, 14.4.3.5
  • SECURITY DEPOSITS
    • landlord bankruptcy, recovery, 18.8.5
    • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.2.2
  • SECURITY INTERESTS
    • see also COLLATERAL; LIENS; REPOSSESSIONS; SECURED CREDITORS
    • allowed secured claims, see ALLOWED SECURED CLAIMS
    • avoidance, see AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
    • bankruptcy clauses, 11.5.4
    • bifurcation, 11.7
      • chapter 7, 11.2.1.2
      • chapter 12, 11.2.1.3, 17.5.3
      • chapter 13, 11.2.1.3, 12.2.3.1
    • cash collateral, see CASH COLLATERAL
    • chapter 12
      • automatic dissolution, 17.4.3.4
      • avoidance, 17.4.3.3, 17.4.3.5
      • determination, 17.5.3
    • chapter 13 cramdown, 11.6
    • chapter 13 limitations, 12.2.3.1
    • cross-collateral clauses, 15.5.3
    • definition, 10.4.2.6.4.3, 11.6.1.2.2.6
    • elimination, various means, 11.1
    • enforcement after discharge, 15.5.1.4, 15.5.2, 15.5.3
    • gathering information regarding, 5.3.3.3
    • hardship discharges, effect, 4.7.2
    • listing as exempt in schedule, 7.3.7.2.3
    • listing in schedule, Sch. D, 7.3.7.3.2
    • partial encumbrances, 3.5.4
    • personal property
      • adequate protection payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2
      • proof of insurance, 8.3.13, 12.8.4
      • "retain and pay" option, 11.4.2
      • validity, 8.4.3
    • preferences, see PREFERENCES
    • purchase money, see PURCHASE MONEY SECURITY INTERESTS
    • real property, see MORTGAGES
    • redemption, see RIGHT OF REDEMPTION
    • spreader clauses, 15.5.3
    • statement of intention regarding, see STATEMENT OF INTENTION
  • SERVICE
    • bankruptcy proceedings, 14.3.2.1
  • SERVICERS
    • abuses, 14.4.3.4
      • sanctions, 16.5.5.1, 16.5.5.2
    • Rule 3002.1 requirements, 11.6.2.8.2
    • voluntary loan modifications, 11.6.1.5
  • SETOFFS
    • see also COUNTERCLAIMS
    • allowed secured claims, 11.2.1
    • automatic stay, effect, 9.4.4
    • avoidance, 10.4.2.6.7
    • bank account freezes, 11.3.5
    • chapter 12, government creditors, 17.4.12
    • governmental units, 14.3.2.2
    • lender bankruptcies, 18.9.4
    • mutual debts, 10.4.2.6.7, 17.4.12
    • post discharge, 10.5
    • recoupment claims, 10.4.2.6.7, 14.3.2.4
    • right to, 10.4.2.6.7, 17.4.12
    • tax claims, 9.4.4, 9.4.6.8, 17.4.12
  • SETTLEMENT
    • prepetition attempts, effect on creditor's claim, 14.4.3.6
  • SMALL BUSINESSES
    • chapter 11 reorganizations, 18.7.10
  • SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS
    • see also PUBLIC BENEFITS
    • current monthly income, exclusion, 13.4.3.2.7
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.4
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
    • overpayments, dischargeability, 15.4.3.2.3.3
    • wage orders, attachment, 12.6.1
  • SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS
    • production at meeting of creditors, 8.4.2, 8.4.3
    • statement of, see STATEMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER
  • SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY
    • attorney fee awards, relationship, 16.5.7
    • Bankruptcy Code, abrogation, 1.1.2.4, 9.6.6, 14.3.2.2
    • stripdown not violation of, 11.2.1.1
    • Tucker Act, application, 14.3.2.2
  • SPENDTHRIFT TRUSTS
    • bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.2
  • SPOUSES
    • see also CODEBTORS; JOINT BANKRUPTCIES; JOINT PROPERTY
    • chapter 13 eligibility, 4.2.1.2, 6.3.2, 12.2.2
    • considerations favoring chapter 7, 6.3.2
    • financial management course, completion, 8.3.3
    • fraudulent actions, liability of debtor, 15.4.3.2.2.2
    • income, treatment for bankruptcy purposes, 13.4.3.2.3
    • joint filings, considerations, 6.4
    • listing in schedule, 7.3.7.5
    • marital property settlements, see MARITAL PROPERTY SETTLEMENTS
    • prior filing by, effect, 9.3.3.2.1, 9.3.3.3, 12.10.3
    • statement of financial affairs, 7.3.8
    • support obligations, see DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
  • SPREADER CLAUSES
    • validity, 15.5.3
  • STANDING
    • prepetition causes of action, 14.3.2.6.2
    • securitized debts, 9.7.3.1.1, 14.4.3.4.7
  • STATE EXEMPTIONS
    • see also EXEMPT PROPERTY
    • choosing, 10.2.1
    • domiciliary requirements, 10.2.1.2
      • exemption planning, 6.5.2.2
    • farmers, 17.4.3.1
    • federal modification, 10.2.3.1
    • homestead exemptions, 10.2.3.4
    • joint property, 10.2.3.2
    • property not subject to process, 10.2.3.2
    • retirement funds, 10.2.3.3
    • summaries, Appx. J
  • STATEMENT ABOUT BANKRUPTCY ASSISTANCE SERVICES
    • required statement, 16.8.3.3
  • STATEMENT OF ATTORNEY COMPENSATION
    • form, Appx. E.3
    • requirement, 16.3.2
  • STATEMENT OF CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
    • see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS; CURRENT MONTHLY INCOME
    • filing, 7.3.9, 13.4.3.2.1
    • Official Form 22, Appx. D.2
  • STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
    • see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS; FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
    • filing, 7.2.1
    • generally, 7.3.8
    • Official Form 7, Appx. D.2
  • STATEMENT OF INTENTION
    • see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • conversion from chapter 13, 4.7.4
    • filing requirement, 7.2.1
    • generally, 7.3.11, 11.4
    • Official Form 8, Appx. D.2
    • performance, 3.5, 11.4.1
    • retention of property, 11.4.2
  • STATEMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER
    • see also BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • chapter 7, 3.4
    • chapter 13, 4.4
    • emergency bankruptcies, 7.2.2
    • filing, 7.2.1, 7.3.3
    • Official Form 21, Appx. D.2
    • privacy issues, 7.3.3
  • STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF CERTAIN LIABILITIES
    • required form, 7.3.7.8
  • STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
    • see also TIME LIMITS
    • avoidance actions, 10.4.2.2, 10.4.2.7
    • bankruptcy stay violations, 9.6.2
    • fraudulent conveyances, 10.4.2.6.5
    • recovery actions, 10.4.2.2, 10.4.2.8
    • student loans, 15.4.3.8.2
    • tax reach backs, 6.5.3.4
    • TIL claims, 14.4.4
    • tolling, 10.4.2.7
  • STATUTORY LIENS
    • see also LIENS
    • avoidance, 10.4.2.6.3
    • chapter 13 cramdown, application, 11.6.1.2.2.6
    • preferences, exception, 10.4.2.6.4.2
    • valuation of property, 11.2.2.3.4
  • STAY OF PROCEEDINGS
    • see AUTOMATIC STAY
  • STRAIGHT BANKRUPTCY
    • see CHAPTER 7 LIQUIDATIONS
  • STRIPDOWN
    • see also CRAMDOWN
    • chapter 13 plans, 11.2.1.3, 11.2.2
    • government claims, 11.2.1.1
    • limitations on, 11.6.1.2
    • non-recourse loans, 11.2.1.2
  • STUDENT LOANS
    • administrative discharge, 15.4.3.8.3, 15.4.3.8.4
    • chapter 13 classification, 12.4.3
    • chapter 13 issues, 15.4.3.8.5
    • defenses, raising, 15.4.3.8.4
    • dischargeability, 15.4.1, 15.4.3.8
      • chapter 7, 3.6
      • chapter 13, 4.8
      • procedure, 15.4.3.8.3
    • discharge issues
      • discharge protections, 15.5.5.2
      • hardship discharge, 15.4.3.8.2.2, 15.4.3.8.3
      • related provisions, Appx. A.4.4
    • HEAL debts, 15.4.3.8.6
    • nonbankruptcy alternatives, 15.4.3.8.4
    • qualified education loans, defined, 15.4.3.8.1
    • reaffirmation agreements, 15.5.5.2
    • related provisions, Appx. A.3, Appx. A.4.4
  • SUBPOENAS
    • forms, Appx. E.7
  • SUBSTANTIAL ABUSE
    • see also ABUSE OF CHAPTER 7
    • standard changed, 13.4.7.2
  • SUBSTANTIVE CONSOLIDATION
    • joint bankruptcy, differences, 6.4
  • SUMMARY OF SCHEDULES
    • required form, 7.3.7.8
  • SUMMONS
    • forms, Appx. E.6
  • SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
    • see DOMESTIC SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS
  • TAX CLAIMS
    • see also GOVERNMENT CLAIMS
    • allowed secured claims, 11.2.1.1
    • automatic stay
      • effect, 9.4.4, 9.4.6.8
      • violations, 9.6.6
    • burden of proof, 14.4.3.3
    • chapter 12 dispositions, 17.5.5.4
    • chapter 13 classification, 12.3.6.1, 12.4.3
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.1
      • analyzing to determine, 15.4.3.1.2
      • chapter 13, 4.8, 15.4.3.1.1
      • generally, 7.3.7.3.3, 15.4.3.1.1
      • reach back periods, 6.5.3.4
    • federal taxes paid by credit card, 15.4.3.13
    • government claims, status as, 15.4.3.1.1
    • listing in schedules, 7.3.7.3.3
    • litigating in bankruptcy court, 14.3.2.3
    • means test deductions, 13.4.5.3.3
    • objections to, 14.4.3.2
    • priority status, 7.3.7.3.3, 17.5.5.4
    • proof of claim, filing, time, 14.4.3.2
    • set-off rights
      • automatic stay, application, 9.4.4, 9.4.6.8
      • chapter 12, 17.4.12
  • TAX CONSEQUENCES
    • discharge, 15.5.5.6
  • TAX CREDITS
    • bankruptcy estate, exclusion, 2.5.5
      • federal exemption, application, 10.2.2.11
  • TAX LIENS
    • avoidance, 10.4.2.6.3
  • TAX REFUNDS
    • assignment for attorney fees, 2.5.5
    • bankruptcy estate, inclusion, 2.5.5, 7.3.7.2.2
    • chapter 13 plan issues, 12.3.4.4.3, 12.3.4.4.5
    • expected, effect on waiver of filing fee, 14.6.2.1
    • intercepts
      • automatic stay, application, 9.4.4, 9.4.6.8
      • avoidance as preference, 10.4.2.6.4.3
  • TAX RETURNS
    • chapter 13 prerequisite, 4.3, 8.3.14, 12.3.6.2
    • failure to file, effect, 15.4.3.1.1
    • obtaining, Appx. H.2
    • production, 8.3.4
      • court, filing with, 8.3.4.2
      • privacy concerns, 8.3.4.3
      • trustee and creditors, to, 8.3.4.1
    • source of information, 5.3.4
  • TENANTS
    • see also RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES; UNEXPIRED LEASES
    • evictions, see EVICTIONS
    • landlord bankruptcies, see LANDLORD BANKRUPTCIES
  • TIME LIMITS
    • see also STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
    • appeals, 2.4.3, 14.9.5
    • attorney fee applications, 15.4.3.2.4
    • automatic stay litigation, 9.7.2
    • avoidance of liens, 10.4.2.2
    • bankruptcy petition preparers, disclosures, 16.6
    • chapter 7, 3.3
    • chapter 11 plans, 18.7.9
    • chapter 12 reorganizations
      • generally, 17.5.2
      • plan proposals, 17.5.2
      • revocation of discharge, 17.7.3
      • unexpired farmland leases, assumption, 17.4.7.5
    • chapter 13 reorganizations
      • claims and objections, 4.3
      • commencement of plan payments, 8.3.12
    • dischargeability, raising, 15.4.2, 18.5.4.2.2
    • emergency bankruptcies, filings, 7.2.2
    • exempt property
      • amending claim, 10.3.2
      • dependent claims, 10.3.1
    • extensions, 7.3.13.5
    • financial management course, 8.3.3
    • fraudulent conveyances, 6.5.2.1
    • jury trials, filing of consents, 14.2.7
    • objections to claims, 8.3.9, 8.4.6, 14.4.3.1
    • objections to discharge, 3.3, 15.2.1
    • objections to exemptions, 3.3, 8.5, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
    • preferences, 6.5.2.1
    • proof of claim
      • consumers as creditors, 18.4.1
      • filing, 3.3, 14.4.3.2, 15.4.3.3
      • filing by debtor, 8.4.6
    • redemption of personal property, 8.3.7.1
    • removal to bankruptcy court, 14.4.1.2
    • small business reorganizations, 18.7.10
    • stated intentions, following through, 7.3.11
    • statement of compensation, filing, 16.3.2
    • statement of intention, filing, 7.3.11, 11.4.1
    • tax intercept, 9.4.4
    • utility services, adequate assurance, 9.8.2
  • TITLE PAWNS
    • bankruptcy, effect, 11.9
  • TOOLS OF THE TRADE
    • family farmers
      • exemption, 17.4.3.2
      • redemption, 17.4.3.5.5
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.7
    • livestock, status as, 17.4.3.2
    • non-purchase money liens, avoidance, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
  • TORT CLAIMS
    • see also PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS; WRONGFUL DEATH CLAIMS
    • bankruptcy court, jurisdiction, 14.2.6, 14.5.2
    • dischargeability, 15.4.3.6, 18.5.4.2.1, 18.5.4.4
    • undiscovered prepetition, 18.5.4.4
  • TRANSCRIPTS
    • educational institutions, discharge protections, 15.5.5.2
    • IRS, 15.4.3.1.2
  • TRANSFERS
    • avoidance, see AVOIDANCE OF LIENS AND TRANSFERS
    • donations, see CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS
    • fraudulent, see FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS
    • postpetition, see POSTPETITION TRANSFERS
    • prebankruptcy, see PREBANKRUPTCY TRANSFERS
  • TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES
    • means test deduction, 13.4.5.2.4
      • IRS standard, Appx. I.2.4
  • TRUST FUNDS
    • see also TRUSTS
    • bankruptcy estate
      • exempt from, 18.5.2.1
      • existence of trust, 18.5.2.2
      • tracing trust funds, 18.5.2.3
    • constructive trusts, 18.5.2.2
    • self-settled trusts, avoidance of transfers, 10.4.2.6.5
  • TRUSTEES
    • see also TRUSTS
    • bankruptcy trustees, see TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
    • chapter 7 filings, restrictions, 3.2.1.1, 6.2.2.8.1
    • fraud by, discharge bar, 15.4.3.4, 15.4.3.11
    • U.S. trustee, see UNITED STATES TRUSTEE PROGRAM
  • TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
    • see also UNITED STATES TRUSTEE PROGRAM
    • appointment and duties, 2.6
    • automatic stay, motions for relief, party, 9.7.3.1.1
    • automatic turnover of property to, see AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
    • avoidance powers
      • fraudulent transfers, 10.4.2.6.5
      • liens securing penalties, 10.4.2.6.8
      • postpetition transfers, 10.4.2.6.6
      • preferences, 10.4.2.6.4.1, 10.4.2.6.4.2
      • preservation of property, 10.4.2.9
      • setoffs, 10.4.2.6.7
      • statutory liens, 10.4.2.6.3
      • strong-arm clause, 10.4.2.6.2
    • chapter 7 liquidations
      • abandonment of property, 3.5, 8.3.11, 11.3.3, 18.8.2.1
      • administration of property, 3.5, 14.3.2.6.2
      • compensation surcharge, 7.2.1
      • disposition of property, 11.3.4
      • disputes, powers, 3.4
      • distribution to creditors, 3.5.4
      • final report, 3.5.4
      • interim trustee, appointment, 3.3
      • liquidation of estate, 3.5.2
      • objections, 8.5
      • oral examination of debtor, 3.4
      • unpaid compensation, payment in chapter 13, 12.4.5
    • chapter 11, appointment, 18.7.4
    • chapter 12 reorganizations
      • additional to DIP, 17.3.1
      • appointment, 17.4.1.1
      • compensation, 17.4.1.2
      • plan payments through, 17.4.1.2.1, 17.5.7.3, 17.5.9
      • removal of DIP, operation of farm, 17.3.2, 17.4.1.3
      • role and standing, 17.4.1.1
    • chapter 13 reorganizations
      • appointment, 4.3
      • charges, adjustments, 12.6.4
      • commission, amount, 6.2.2.6
      • commission, payment under plan, 7.3.12.3, 11.6.1.3.3.6
      • fees, priority claim, 12.3.6.1
      • form plans, promulgation, 7.3.12.2
      • income payments to, 12.6.1
      • objections to claims, 4.4
      • oral examination of debtor, 4.4
      • plans, administration, 4.4, 8.7.1
      • secured creditors, standing regarding, 11.6.1.3.3.6
      • standing trustee, 2.6, 4.3
    • document production requests, Appx. H.7
    • meeting of creditors, powers, 8.4.3
      • oral examination of chapter 7 debtor, 8.4.5
    • minimum commission, 7.3.12.3
    • motion to dismiss, costs, 16.7.2.1
    • objections to exemptions, 10.3.3, 10.3.4
    • prepetition causes of action, administration, 14.3.2.6.2
    • property recovered by, exemption claim, 10.4.2.5
    • tax returns, provision to, 8.3.4.1
  • TRUSTS
    • see also TRUST FUNDS; TRUSTEES
    • bankruptcy petitions, restrictions on filing, 3.2.1.1, 6.2.2.8.1
    • constructive trusts, see CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS
    • spendthrift trusts, see SPENDTHRIFT TRUSTS
  • TRUTH IN LENDING CLAIMS
    • attorney fees, 16.5.3
    • automatic stay issues, 9.7.3.3.2, 18.9.2
    • bankruptcy court, bringing before, 14.4.4
  • TUCKER ACT
    • sovereign immunity application, 14.3.2.2
  • TURNOVER OF PROPERTY
    • see AUTOMATIC TURNOVER
  • TYPING SERVICES
    • see BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS; NON-ATTORNEYS
  • UNAUTHORIZED PRACTICE OF LAW
    • non-attorney operations, 16.6
  • UNEXPIRED LEASES
    • see also EVICTION; RESIDENTIAL TENANCIES
    • adequate protection, 12.8.2.2
    • assumption
      • chapter 7, 8.3.7.2, 12.9.5.3
      • chapter 12, 17.4.7.1, 17.4.7.5
      • chapter 13, 12.9.2, 12.9.4
    • automatic stay relief
      • personal property leases, 12.9.4, 12.9.5.2
      • residential leases, 9.7.3.2.4
    • chapter 12, assumption or rejection, 17.4.7
      • equipment leases, 17.4.7.4
      • farmland rental agreements, 17.4.7.5
    • chapter 13 plans
      • adequate protection, 12.8.2.2
      • assumption, 12.9.2
      • classification, 12.4.3
      • payments, 12.8.3
      • procedure and tactics, 12.9.4
      • proof of insurance, 12.8.4
      • rejection, 12.9.3.2
    • default, curing, 12.9.2
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.3
    • listing
      • filing of list, 7.3.4
      • schedule, Sch. G, 7.3.7.4
    • personal property leases
      • automatic stay relief, 12.9.4, 12.9.5.2
      • chapter 7, assumption or rejection, 8.3.7.2, 12.9.5
      • chapter 12, assumption or rejection, 17.4.7.1, 17.4.7.4
      • chapter 13, assumption or rejection, 12.9
      • chapter 13 payments, 8.3.12.2, 12.8.2.2, 12.8.3
      • deemed rejection, 12.9.5.2
      • proof of insurance, 8.3.13, 12.8.4
      • statement of intention, 7.3.11, 11.4
    • rejection
      • chapter 7, 12.9.5.2
      • chapter 12, 17.4.7.1, 17.4.7.4
      • chapter 13, 12.9.3, 12.9.4
    • rent-to-own transactions, see RENT-TO-OWN TRANSACTIONS
    • residential leases, 9.7.3.2.4
  • UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES
    • attorney fee awards, 16.5.3
    • automatic stay violations, 9.6.5
    • non-attorney services, 16.3.3, 16.6
    • non-possessory, non-purchase money liens, 10.4.2.4, 10.4.2.10
    • security deposit misappropriation, 18.8.5
  • UNITED STATES CODE
    • selected provisions, Appx. A.2, Appx. A.3
    • title 11, see BANKRUPTCY CODE
  • UNITED STATES TRUSTEE PROGRAM
    • see also TRUSTEES IN BANKRUPTCY
    • approved financial management courses, 8.3.3
    • attorney fees, monitoring, 16.3.1, 16.3.3, 16.4.2
    • chapter 11, role, 18.7.2.3, 18.7.4.7
    • function, generally, 2.7
    • helpful resources, Appx. H.4
    • institution of system, 1.1.2.3, 1.5.1.3
    • motion for dismissal, bringing, 13.4
    • phase-in of operation, 1.4.1
    • related provisions, Appx. A.4.3
    • trustees in bankruptcy, appointment, 2.6
  • UNSECURED CREDITORS
    • see also CREDITORS
    • bankruptcy as protection from, 6.2.1.2
    • chapter 12 plans, 17.5.5
      • classification, 17.5.6.3
      • disposable income commitment, 17.5.5.3
      • good faith test, 17.5.7.1
      • liquidation test, 17.5.5.2
    • chapter 13 plans, 12.3
      • best interests test, 7.3.12.3, 7.3.12.5, 12.3.2
      • classification, 12.4
      • objections, 12.3.4.2
    • determination, 12.2.3.1
    • discharge, effect on, 15.5.1
    • listing in schedule, Sch. F, 7.3.7.3.4
    • priority creditors, see PRIORITY UNSECURED CREDITORS
  • UTILITY SERVICES
    • adequate assurance of payment, 9.8.2
    • denial of service, restrictions, 9.8.1
    • governmental utilities, 9.8.2.2.5
    • landlord bankruptcy
      • maintaining service, 18.5.7, 18.8.2
      • taxing of secured creditor, 18.5.3
    • means test deduction, 13.4.5.2.5
      • IRS standards, Appx. I.2.3
    • postpetition shut-offs, 9.8.2.2.4
    • reinstatement, 9.8.1, 9.8.2
  • VALUATION
    • allowed secured claims
      • appraisal, necessity, 11.2.2.3.4
      • chapter 12 reorganizations, 17.5.3
      • conversion from chapter 13 to 7, 13.7.2, 13.7.3
      • date, 11.2.2.2
      • exempt property, inclusion, 11.2.2.3.4
      • generally, 11.2.2.1, 11.6.1.3.3.5
      • method, 11.2.2.3
      • present value, 11.6.1.3.3.1, 11.6.1.3.3.6
    • causes of action, 7.3.7.2.2
    • equity in property
      • exemption claims, 10.3.3
      • stay litigation, 9.7.3.3.1
    • exempt property, 10.1.2, 10.3.3
    • motor vehicles, 5.3.4, 11.2.2.3.2
    • personal property, 7.3.7.2.2, 11.2.2.3.3
      • converted cases, 13.7.2
      • date, 11.2.2.2.2
      • replacement value, 11.2.2.3.1
    • private market value, 11.2.2.3.2
    • real property, 5.3.4, 7.3.7.2.1
      • date, 11.2.2.2.2
      • timing of petition, 6.5.3.8
    • replacement cost, 11.2.2.3.1, 11.2.2.3.2
    • right of redemption, 11.5.5
    • web resources, 5.3.4
  • VENUE
    • bankruptcy matters, 3.2.3, 14.3.2.1
  • VETERANS
    • see also MILITARY PERSONNEL
    • disabled veterans, means test exemption, 13.4.4
  • VOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCIES
    • see also BANKRUPTCY; INVOLUNTARY BANKRUPTCIES
    • consumers as creditors, preparing for, 18.2.1
    • defined, 2.1
    • petitions, see BANKRUPTCY PETITIONS
  • WAGE GARNISHMENTS
    • avoidance as preference, 10.4.2.6.4.2, 10.4.2.6.4.3
  • WAGE ORDERS
    • chapter 13 cases, 8.3.12, 12.6.1
  • WAGES
    • priority claims, 18.7.12.2
    • withholding for retirement fund loans
      • automatic stay exemption, 9.4.6.4
      • disposable income exclusion, 12.3.4.4.2.4
  • WAIVER
    • credit counseling requirement, 3.2.1.4
    • default, see RIGHT TO CURE
    • filing fees, 6.2.2.6, 14.6, 18.6.2
      • see also IN FORMA PAUPERIS
      • application for, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.4
      • chapter 7, 14.6.2.1, Appx. H.6
      • chapter 12, 17.2.3.3
      • consumers as creditors, 18.6.2
      • general principles, 14.6.1
      • Official Form 3B, 7.2.1, 7.3.13.4, Appx. D.2
      • statutory authority, 14.6.2
    • financial management course, 8.3.3
    • setoff rights, 10.4.2.6.7
  • WEB RESOURCES
    • see also COMPUTERIZATION; RESEARCH AIDS
    • bankruptcy court documents, 2.4.1, 5.3.4
    • bankruptcy forms, 1.3.2, 1.4.3, 7.1.2
    • bankruptcy research, 1.5.7
    • bankruptcy, understanding, 6.1.2
    • helpful websites, Appx. L
    • NCLC companion website, 1.3.2, 5.1.3, Appx. M
    • NCLC web-based text searches, 1.3.3, Appx. M.6
    • PACER, 2.4.1, 5.3.4, Appx. C.4
    • valuation issues, 5.3.4
  • WELFARE BENEFITS
    • see also PUBLIC BENEFITS
    • discharge protections, 15.5.5.4
    • federal exemption, 10.2.2.11
  • WRONGFUL CONDUCT
    • homestead exemption cap, 10.2.3.4.5
  • WRONGFUL DEATH CLAIMS
    • see also PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS
    • bankruptcy court
      • jurisdiction, 14.2.6
      • mandatory abstention, application, 14.5.2
    • drunk driving, dischargeability, 15.4.3.9
Companion Website Contents

A summary of the contents of the companion website for Consumer Bankruptcy Law and Practice is below. To login to the companion website, go to www.consumerlaw.org/webaccess. More information about using the companion website can be found on page ix of any of the treatises.

  • Bankruptcy Statutes
    • Bankruptcy Code
      • Current Bankruptcy Code
      • Redlined Bankruptcy Code, Showing 2005 Changes
      • Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109-8, 119 Stat. 23 (April 20, 2005) (05 Supp. Appx. A.3)
      • Selected Legislative History of the 2005 Act
      • Pre-2005 Version of Bankruptcy Code
    • Other Statutes
      • Selected Provisions of U.S.C. Title 28
      • Selected Provisions of Other Titles of the U.S. Code
      • Selected Uncodified Provisions of Bankruptcy Acts
  • Bankruptcy Rules, Fees
    • Current Rules
      • Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure
      • Interim Rule 1007-I: Expiration of Temporary Means Testing Exclusion
    • History of Rule Amendments
      • Changes to Time Deadlines (May 1, 2009)
      • Need to Rescind Local Adoption of Interim Bankruptcy Rules (Sept. 9, 2008)
      • Report of Advisory Committee on Bankruptcy Rules (May 8, 2007)
      • Judicial Conference Memoranda re 2005 Interim Rules (August, 2005)
      • Rule changes effective December 2012
      • Rule changes effective December 2011
      • Rule changes effective December 2010
      • Rule changes effective December 2009
      • Rule changes effective December 2008
      • Rule changes effective December 2007
      • Rule changes effective December 2006
      • Rule changes effective December 2005
      • Rule changes effective December 2004
      • Rule changes effective December 2003
      • Rule changes effective December 2002
      • Rule changes effective December 2001
      • Rule changes effective December 2000
    • Fees
      • Bankruptcy Court Filing Fees, Effective 4-9-06
      • Bankruptcy Court Miscellaneous Fee Schedule, Effective 1-1-2010
      • Electronic Public Access Fee Schedule
    • Credit Counseling
      • Final Rule on Credit Counseling Agencies, 28 CFR 58
      • Interim Final Rule on Credit Counseling Agencies, 71 Fed. Reg. 38,076 (July 5, 2006)
    • Audit Standards
      • Debtor Audit Standards, 71 Fed. Reg. 58,005 (Oct. 2, 2006)
      • Information on Debtor Audits
      • Debtor Audit Document Request Form
  • Pleadings, Forms
    • Official Bankruptcy Forms
      • Link to Official Bankruptcy Forms, with Instructions and Committee Notes
      • Sample Completed Bankruptcy Forms to Institute Case, with Instructions and Committee Notes
      • Other Official Bankruptcy Forms Files Later in the Case
      • Permitted Alterations to the Official Forms
      • Electronic Case Filing
      • Director's Procedural Forms
      • Link to Director's Procedural Forms (Promulgated by the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts)
    • From Bankruptcy Manual, Complying with 2005 Act
      • Pre-Filing Forms
      • Initial Forms
      • Automatic Stay
      • Turnover of Property
      • Utilities
      • Steps After Filing
      • Claims
      • Exemptions and Lien Avoidance
      • Litigation
      • Privacy Protection
      • Discharge and Reaffirmation
      • Plan Modification
      • Chapter Conversion
      • Debtor's Motion to Dismiss
      • Debtor's Motion to Reopen
      • Consumers as Creditors
      • Family Farmer Reorganization
    • From Other NCLC Manuals (may not comply with 2005 Act)
      • Student Loans
      • TIL Rescission
      • Yield Spread Premiums
      • Sovereign Immunity
      • Violation of Discharge, Plan Provisions
      • Dischargeability
      • Fraudulent Second Mortgage
      • Consumers as Creditors
      • Arbitration
  • Practice Aids
    • Date Calculator
      • Date Calculator That Computes Key Look-Back Dates
    • Interview Questionnaire
      • Interview Questionnaire (English)
      • Interview Questionnaire (Spanish)
    • Fee Waivers
      • Interim Procedures Regarding the Chapter 7 Fee Waiver Provisions
    • Obtaining Tax Returns or Transcripts from the I.R.S.
      • How to Obtain Tax Returns
      • Form 8821, Tax Information Authorization
      • Form 2848, Power of Attorney and Declaration of Representative
      • Form 4506, Request for Copy of Tax Return
      • Form 4506-T, Request for Transcript of Tax Return
      • Interim Evidence Regarding Tax Information
    • State Exemption Laws
      • State-by-State Exemption Laws
    • Credit Counseling Agencies
      • Links to Counseling Agencies, Financial Mgmt Courses, State Domestic Support
    • Client Handouts
      • Answers to Common Bankruptcy Questions
      • Your Legal Rights During and After Bankruptcy
      • Using Credit Wisely After Bankruptcy
    • Best Practices
      • Best Practices for Consumer Bankruptcy Cases (with Commentary)
    • Helpful Resources
      • Helpful Resources from the U.S. Trustee Program
    • Websites
      • Helpful Websites
    • Bibliography
      • Short Bibliography
      • Long Bibliography
    • Means Test Data
      • Weblink to Current and Historical Means Test Data
1.4.2 The Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure

Complementing the statute's mostly substantive provisions are the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure, also known as the Bankruptcy Rules, which were promulgated by the Supreme Court in 1983 and amended at various times since then.75 These rules provide detailed guidelines in numerous areas not specifically covered by the Code. They cover the procedures not only for administering the bankruptcy petitions themselves, but also for proceedings within or related to the principal bankruptcy case.

1.4.3 The Official Bankruptcy Forms

Lastly, official bankruptcy forms have been promulgated for use in bankruptcy cases. These are detailed examples of what various documents in a case are to contain. The Bankruptcy Rules provide that the official forms must be "observed and used with alterations as may be appropriate," including the combination or rearrangement of their contents to permit economies in their use.

The official bankruptcy forms were substantially amended in recent years to make many of the forms clearer and more understandable, to conform them to statutory changes, and to protect somewhat the privacy of debtors and their dependents. The Official Bankruptcy Forms, as most recently amended in 2012, appear in Appendix D, infra. They may all be found on the website of the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts.

3.1 General Explanation of Chapter 7 Bankruptcy

When most people think of bankruptcy, they think of the type of bankruptcy provided for in chapter 7 of the Code, a liquidation proceeding sometimes called straight bankruptcy. This type of bankruptcy has by far been the most popular type of proceeding for individuals. Although the percentage of debtors choosing chapter 7 has diminished somewhat since enactment of the Code because of the advantages that chapter 13 offers, chapter 7 continues to be the chapter most frequently utilized, and it remains a lifeline for over a million consumer debtors each year.

This Chapter describes the routine steps in a typical liquidation case, from beginning to end, with emphasis on the procedures in "no-asset" cases. (A "no-asset" case is one in which none of the debtor's assets are available to be sold for the benefit of unsecured creditors because all of the debtor's significant assets are exempt1 or encumbered by liens2 to the full extent of their value.) Chapters 5 through 8, infra, then provide a detailed practical guide on how to prepare and handle a bankruptcy case.

In a liquidation case, all of the debtor's nonexempt assets that have significant value are distributed to creditors and the debtor normally receives a bankruptcy discharge. From the beginning of the case until its conclusion, each step in the process is directed toward one or both of these ends.

3.2.1.1 General Rules, Including Credit Counseling Requirement

Any individual residing, domiciled, or having property or a place of business in the United States may file a chapter 7 bankruptcy.3 To be eligible, the individual must, with certain limited exceptions, have received a credit counseling briefing from an approved nonprofit budget and counseling agency within the 180 days before filing the bankruptcy petition.4 The individual need not be insolvent. A person, whether a citizen or not, may file a bankruptcy case even if the person does not reside in the United States, as long as the person has assets in the United States.5 In very limited circumstances a chapter 7 case may be dismissed by the court for "abuse," and an individual whose income is above certain standards is subject to a means test to determine whether there is a presumption of abuse based on the debtor's ability to repay creditors.6

3.2.1.3 Eligibility to File a Case Does Not Assure Discharge of Debts

Apart from eligibility to file a chapter 7 case, however, there are also certain requirements for obtaining a chapter 7 discharge. Because the discharge is usually the main goal of filing, few people who do not meet these requirements should voluntarily34 start a chapter 7 case. The various bars to discharge are listed in section 727(a) of the Code. Most are discussed at greater length elsewhere in this treatise.35 The provisions which most commonly present problems are those that deny a discharge when the debtor has received a bankruptcy discharge in a chapter 7 case filed less than eight years earlier or, with some exceptions, a chapter 13 case filed less than six years earlier,36 or when the debtor has committed certain acts with an intent to hinder, delay, or defraud a creditor.37 In addition, in order to receive a chapter 7 discharge, the debtor must (with certain limited exceptions) complete an instructional course in personal financial management and file a statement certifying completion of the course.

4.1 General Explanation of Chapter 13 Bankruptcy

Chapter 13 bankruptcy gives the debtor the opportunity to adjust his or her financial affairs without having to liquidate current assets. Rather than being designed to pay debts out of those assets, a chapter 13 case usually involves payment of debts out of future income (although the debtor may also choose to make some payment out of current assets). The debtor is allowed to keep and use all property, whether exempt or not, and to pay some or all debts according to a plan approved by the court. At the completion of this plan (or, in some cases, earlier) the debtor receives a discharge which, with several significant exceptions, is similar to the discharge received in a chapter 7 case.

This Chapter describes the sequence of events in a typical chapter 13 case. Many of these events are quite similar to those in a chapter 7 bankruptcy. Chapters 5 through 8, infra, will then provide a detailed guide to the steps the debtor's counsel must take in preparing and handling the case.

6.2.1.4 Automatic Stay

Sometimes, the most valuable feature of a bankruptcy is the automatic stay, usually gained instantaneously upon the filing of a petition. The stay forces an abrupt halt of most creditor actions against the debtor, including repossessions, garnishments or attachments, utility shut-offs, foreclosures, and, in many cases, evictions.17 Many of these collection actions can thereafter be permanently prevented.18 The stay is also an effective way (though, again, hardly the only way) to end creditor collection efforts, with contempt, or money damages, and attorney fees as available remedies for violations of the stay.19 Furthermore, the stay affords the debtor a breathing spell—a chance to sort things out—through the additional time gained to solve problems.

In addition to the automatic stay available in every bankruptcy case, chapter 13 provides a special automatic stay of creditor actions against most people who are codebtors with the debtor.20 This codebtor stay, which can relieve creditor pressure on friends or relatives of the debtor, may be an important reason to file a chapter 13 case.

6.5.3.5 Delay to Obtain More Favorable Treatment of Certain Secured Debts in Chapter 13

The 2005 amendments added a new provision to chapter 13 that may impair the debtor's right to "cramdown" certain debts secured by purchase money security interests in personal property. 160 The provision applies if a motor vehicle was purchased for the debtor's personal use within the 910 days before the bankruptcy petition was filed or if other property was purchased within one year before the petition was filed.161 If the debtor is filing a chapter 13 case in which the debtor can benefit from the bifurcation of such secured claims to reduce the amount that must be paid to secured creditors, it may be important to wait until the requisite time periods have run.

8.8.2 Reaffirmation of Debts

The principal stated purpose of the discharge hearing is to advise debtors of their rights, especially with regard to reaffirmation of debts. In a well-handled case, this counsel should already have been provided by the debtor's attorney. Without doubt, the best advice in this regard is simply that reaffirmation is rarely a good idea. Reaffirmation, which in essence is a promise to pay a debt despite its discharge, effectively waives the benefits of discharge as to that particular debt273 and should be advised only in exceptional circumstances.274 Perhaps, if a debtor is in economic default, that is, behind in payments on a secured debt, and does not wish to pursue chapter 13 to deal with the problem, reaffirmation might be appropriate in exchange for a creditor's forbearance. Similarly, if it is unlikely that any recovery of a deficiency would be sought after foreclosure on a mortgage, either because the value of the collateral far exceeds the debt or because deficiency judgments are barred in the jurisdiction, then little harm can be done by reaffirming that debt. In either case, the debt should not be reaffirmed in an amount exceeding the value of the collateral;275 there may also be ways to save the debtor's property without reaffirmation.

9.3 Duration of the Stay

The duration of the automatic stay can vary significantly depending upon the circumstances. Theoretically it can be ended almost immediately, if the circumstances require, by the court granting relief to affected parties. Such circumstances, usually dealing with very perishable property, are almost never present in cases involving consumer debtors. As a practical matter, the stay usually is not lifted by the court in much less than thirty days; and it may last for the duration of the case, a matter of three to six months in a no asset chapter 7 case and up to five years in a chapter 13 case.

12.2.3.2 Determining Whether Debts Are Liquidated and Non-Contingent

Further problems may arise in determining whether debts are liquidated or non-contingent and therefore countable toward the debt limitations. Neither term is defined in the Code, and thus state law concepts may come into play. As to these questions, all debtors filing chapter 13 cases will have a common interest—to classify the maximum number of debts as non-liquidated or contingent.

Regarding whether a debt is liquidated, the clearest cases are at the extremes. A note as to which a judgment has been entered and to which there are no defenses is perhaps the paradigm of a liquidated debt.42 A tort claim for personal injuries and pain and suffering, which has not been adjudicated, is clearly unliquidated. Between the extremes, however, there is more doubt. If a debtor can assert any defense to a debt that is not foreclosed by res judicata or otherwise, it should be argued that the debt is not liquidated. Many of the definitions of "liquidated" suggest that when the amount owing is neither agreed upon nor fixed by operation of law the debt is not liquidated.43 And even if the defenses go to only a part of the amount due, these definitions indicate that the debt as a whole should be considered unliquidated because its precise amount is not settled.44 However, this test does not require that to be liquidated the debt must be both agreed upon and fixed by operation of law, so some courts have held that if the amount claimed is readily ascertainable, it is liquidated even if the debtor disputes liability.

15.4.3.8 Student Loans—11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(8)

The exception to discharge for student loans, applicable in both chapter 7 and chapter 13, resulted from publicity over a supposed flood of bankruptcies in the early 1970s filed by students who were just finishing their education with the purpose of discharging their student loans before they started earning money. The exception has had several different wordings and, as last amended,471 covers an "educational benefit, overpayment or loan" which is "made, insured or guaranteed by a governmental unit, or made under any program funded in whole or in part by a governmental unit or a nonprofit institution, or for an obligation to repay funds received as an educational benefit, scholarship or stipend." This language was intended to broaden the scope of the exception to cover most, if not all, student loans made or insured by nonprofit institutions or governmental units,472 at least when the debtor is the student loan recipient rather than a co-signer.473 It does not include debts to educational institutions for tuition, however.474 Generally, if a student loan debt is nondischargeable, postpetition interest on the debt is also not discharged.475

What Must I Do Before Filing Bankruptcy? [Appendix K.2]

You must receive budget and credit counseling from an approved credit counseling agency within 180 days before your bankruptcy case is filed. The agency will review possible options available to you in credit counseling and assist you in reviewing your budget. Different agencies provide the counseling in-person, by telephone, or over the Internet. If you decide to file bankruptcy, you must have a certificate from the agency showing that you received the counseling before your bankruptcy case was filed.

Most approved agencies charge between $20–$50 for the pre-filing counseling. However, the law requires approved agencies to provide bankruptcy counseling and the necessary certificates without considering an individual's ability to pay. If you cannot afford the fee, you should ask the agency to provide the counseling free of charge or at a reduced fee.

If you decide to go ahead with bankruptcy, you should be very careful in choosing an agency for the required counseling. It is extremely difficult to sort out the good counseling agencies from the bad ones. Many agencies are legitimate, but many are simply rip-offs. And being an "approved" agency for bankruptcy counseling is no guarantee that the agency is good. It is also important to understand that even good agencies won't be able to help you much if you're already too deep in financial trouble.

Some of the approved agencies offer debt management plans (also called DMPs). A DMP is a plan to repay some or all of your debts in which you send the counseling agency a monthly payment that it then distributes to your creditors. Debt management plans can be helpful for some consumers. For others, they are a terrible idea. The problem is that some counseling agencies will pressure you into a debt management plan as a way of avoiding bankruptcy whether it makes sense for you or not. You should not consider a debt management plan if making the monthly plan payment will mean you will not have money to pay your rent, mortgage, utilities, food, prescriptions, and other necessities.

"No bankruptcy practitioner, no matter how experienced, should be without this volume."
— Sen. Elizabeth Warren, Founder, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

"Consumer Bankruptcy Law and Practice is a must for every counselor and practicing bankruptcy lawyer in the consumer field. I hope practitioners in my court acquaint themselves with this valuable work."
— Judge Marilyn Morgan, U.S. Bankruptcy Court Northern District of California

". . . no other book of equal or even approximate value to consumer counsel on bankruptcy matters."
—American Bankruptcy Law Journal

"I don't understand how anyone can practice bankruptcy law without the NCLC Consumer Bankruptcy book . . . its helped more than I can say in my practice. Almost every day someone asks a question on the NACBA listserv and someone else pipes in with 'Where's your bankruptcy bible, the NCLC book?' I recommend you get it now!"
— Karen M. Oakes, Basin Bankruptcy Center, Klamath Falls, OR

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